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Supporters of the dualist approach argue that texts may be rephrased at a neutral level and still convey the same meaning, while displaying a normalised, repetitive structure which contains the simplest sentences possible. As the monist approach, according to the authors of Style in Fiction, is the most suitable for poetry 25 , it is unsuitable as a basis of this thesis. Another stylistic approach described by Leech and Short is pluralism. The objective of this thesis is to analyse the style of H.

Lovecraft both in the original and the Polish translation, particularly the emotional responses they evoke. In this case, the analysis will focus on the function of the text, thus justifying the choice of the pluralist approach.

Lovecraft and their respective translations are subject to analysis comprising of two parts. The initial, qualitative analysis seeks to give examples of accuracies or inaccuracies in the translation of Lovecraft's style in prose, in terms of vocabulary, sentence structure and the degree of translation-motivated alterations.

The second part of the analysis aims to verify the accuracy of translation in terms of quantity, namely of sentence length and the frequency of emotion-evoking and mood- related vocabulary on the example of adjectives, nouns and adverbs. It is hypothesised that the contemporary Polish translations of H. Lovecraft's prose are not quite accurate in their rendition of the author's style.

Some of the features which remain ambiguous are the aforementioned mood-related vocabulary and sentence structure and other relevant features of H. Lovecraft's style, discussed in the next chapter. Lovecraft and the style of his prose 2. P Lovecraft and his influences H. Lovecraft is one of the renowned authors and critics of horror fiction. Born to a gentry family in August of , Lovecraft lost his father early and was raised in Providence, Rhode Island, under the influence of his overprotective mother and the grandfather, who influenced the author by introducing him to a wide range of literature, including classical Greek and Roman works.

Lovecraft grew to be an outsider, though a very educated one. His interests, apart from humanities included astronomy, chemistry, evolutionary biology, and physics. According to Joshi These were the foundations of his fascination with the universe and all things cosmic.

As an atheist, he followed the philosophy of materialism, combining the views of classics such as Epicure or Democritus with modern thinkers like Nietzche or Haeckel, shaping him as a determinist.

He disregarded the notion of free will, attributing all events to the inner causality of the universe and Destiny. It resulted in Lovecraft treating his literary work merely as art, performed mainly for pleasure and not for profit. Joshi, As he says, in the essay concerning his own work titled Notes on Writing Weird Fiction: My reason for writing stories is to give myself the satisfaction of visualising more clearly and detailedly and stably the vague, elusive, fragmentary impressions of wonder, beauty, and adventurous expectancy which are conveyed to me by certain sights scenic, architectural, atmospheric, etc.

I choose weird stories because they suit my inclination best—one of my strongest and most persistent wishes being to achieve, momentarily, the illusion of some strange suspension or violation of the galling limitations of time, space, and natural law which for ever imprison us and frustrate our curiosity about the infinite cosmic spaces beyond the radius of our sight and analysis.

Lovecraft, http: His scientific knowledge and attention to detail thus allowed him to create situations, set in the real world, where unnatural and disturbing situations take place. The strong sense of reality, contrasted with the sudden instance of alien creatures or phenomena is the foundation of his prose. On the other hand, Lovecraft based some of his texts on his dreams.

The world they present is far from real, governed by the laws of fluid dream logic, fantastic in setting and the course of events. Most of the men who are first person narrators, witnessing horror and relating it, are well-educated antiquarians, possessing vast knowledge of their subject. They are frequently equipped with very rational minds and disbelieve what they see until they are confronted with the evidence supporting the existence of the unnatural in their world.

Lovecraft's fiction can be divided. The same division applies to Lovecraft's main literary influences. One of his masters was undoubtedly Edgar Allan Poe, whom he discovered at the early age of 8 Joshi, Wilson deemed Lovecraft's work as exaggerated and unacceptable as a form of art.

As a member of New England gentry, Lovecraft was very persistent in his sentiments for the local landscapes. Many of his works praise the space of New England, its towns, filled with relics of colonial architecture and rural, mysterious areas alike.

Lovecraft The basic definition of Lovecraft's style is provided by S. In the following quote, Joshi praises Lovecraft's narration: Few writers in all literature had a better sense of narrative pacing than Lovecraft. In all his great tales the narrative flow proceeds inexorably from the first word to the last, with rarely a false note and with a constantly accumulating sense of awe, wonder and terror.

Thus, a conclusion could be drawn that the frequent use of adjectives, particularly at the end of a text is one of Lovecraft's style markers. Further, Joshi argues that Lovecraft's style is not archaic, but rather dense and compressed.

In all his overwhelming descriptions, Lovecraft tends to use rather vague adjectives. Words like indescribable, unknown or hideous are offered to the reader with a gap which may only be filled by one's imagination and projection of things terrifying to the person.

Lovecraft was aware that all readers are equally affected by horror fiction. Those who are moved by it, all would be naturally able to fill the gap presented by the adjectives. The first person narration, so often seen in Lovecraft's prose, constitutes a significant part of his style. The reader can almost identify with the narrator, in order to take a more direct part in all of the events.

This is emphasised by Lovecraft's intentional opposition between the local populace and the narrator — an outsider, not native to the parts, well-educated and ignorant of local superstitions, comes to a feared, supposedly cursed place, armed with his rational mind and knowledge, only to discover monstrosities.

Another of the most prominent features of Lovecraft's style is the use of words relating to various senses. It is not only the sights, but often, voices possessing terrifying qualities that prove fearsome and haunt the protagonists.

The sense of smell is also very important, Lovecraft's emphasis of stench or the attribute stinking frequently accompany the locations of horrifying events, amplifying the effects of the sights and sounds. Surfaces are often slimy, slippery to the touch, very unsteady to walk on, and by consequence, dangerous or even deadly to the protagonist.

Some of them being prose-poems, they contain a number of visible style markers of which perhaps the alliterations are the most visible. Repetitions at times communicate the quantity or even excess of something, which points to the idea of excess itself as alarming and threatening. Finally, in terms of syntax, one of Lovecraft's style markers is his frequent use of inversion in the sentences.

Adjectives are often fronted in relation to the following clauses, verbs assume non-standard positions in the sentence. All of the above features and style markers are to be tested both in qualitative and quantitative analysis of Polish translations compared with the original texts, in the course of the following chapter. Lovecraft to serve as primary texts for stylistic analysis.

As there are six contemporary translators of Lovecraft, at least one story per each translator is present, in order to assess the extent to which the style of the author was either preserved or modified in the translation. The titles of the original stories are provided in English and the Polish versions of the titles are given where necessary in analysis. The texts are grouped according to translators, as follows: The initial analysis of the texts revealed a rather substantial number of translated fragments which may influence the reception of both the author and the stories in a rather negative manner.

Such potentially harmful translation decisions occur on various levels of language, ranging from lexical choices which imbalance the careful, atmospheric structure of the Lovecraft's sentences, through major changes in syntax, reaching far beyond necessary syntactic adaptations, up to omissions, additions as well as changes affecting the comprehension of the entire text - its characters, mood and logic.

These are presented in sections devoted to the respective translators. The original texts of H. Lovecraft are available on The H. Lovecraft Archive website http: For the sake of brevity, when referencing the original texts, the author and the code abbreviation is given for each story, as explained in the table below.

Codes for referencing primary texts in English The title of the story The full web address of the story Reference code The Statement of http: This is done in order to compare the accuracy of each translator in representing the style of the author in excerpts which are crucial for the mood of the story, often describing the climax.

Both the quality of translated texts as well as their significant quantitative values, such as word and sentence length are discussed. Furthermore, the chosen excerpts contain words which are recurrent in Lovecraft's fiction, particularly in terms of creating the mood, which may be used to measure the accuracy and consistency in preserving Lovecraft's style.

Lipski Robert P. Lipski has translated quite a significant number of Lovecraft's stories. The four chosen Lovecraftian stories in his translation come from the years — and mark the early stage of Lovecraftian prose. At this point of his life, Lovecraft was still quite significantly influenced by Poe, both in terms of form and content Joshi, It assumes the form of a testimony recorded during a police investigation.

The title character recalls a occult research trip to a swamp, led by a friend of his, Harley Warren. The latter, inspired by his study of a forbidden book in Arabic, claims to have found a passage to a different sphere of the world, supposedly inhabited by demons. As his friend stays on the surface, Warren advances into the depths.

He reports his findings with increasing amazement, as they keep contact through a wire phone.

Eventually, he encounters unknown creatures and horrified, orders the man on the surface to block the unearthed entrance and escape. Carter refuses to comply, but changes his mind when a monstrous voice informs him that his friend is already dead, after which he faints while escaping. Although the title may not be noticed as a logical fallacy on the side of the author, Lipski takes further liberties with the text which might be read as an overinterpretation.

Lovecraft, SRC The above fragment is translated as: Lovecraft, This seems mildly inconsistent with the fact that both him and Warren were studying occult books. Another simplification of Carter's utterance is that he could not forget what happened, while in the original text, he is far more eloquent in his statements.

The final words of this fragment were also changed. The above examples show that Lipski changed Lovecraft's character. He is moved by the supernatural, hence, his narration is crucial to the mood in the story. This may be further supported by the fact that Lovecraft himself, being an erudite, identified with the persona of Randolph Carter.

Lipski seems to be inconsistent in his interpretation of Carter, as visible in the following passage: As to the nature of our studies—must I say again that I no longer retain full comprehension?

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It seems to me rather merciful that I do not, for they were terrible studies, which I pursued more through reluctant fascination than through actual inclination.

Lovecraft, SRC The above fragment was translated as: Lovecraft This seems to be a recurring phenomenon, not only in Lipski's translations. Such an alteration may disrupt the rhythm of the original paragraph and ease the tension of the story instead of building it. Another fragment at the beginning of the text may require revision: One of the important elements of The Statement of Randolph Carter is the sphere of sound and voice. Since Warren and Carter communicate through a wire phone, the quality of Warren's voice is significant, as are its changes as the story progresses.

This layer of the story is preserved and visible in the translation, with a variety of speech sounds and their respective attributes, ranging from Warren's calm tone, to his nervous voice, whisper, shriek, finally to the disembodied voice, announcing his death. The prominent themes are loneliness, reclusion from the society and the inhuman, here illustrated by the protagonist who turns out to be a creature truly from a nightmare, an undead ghoul.

He is the first person narrator who tells about his origins. Driven by the desire to meet other people, he decides to leave the castle which he sees as his prison. He encounters a monster, whose touch is cold. At the end, it is revealed that instead of a monster, he had touched the surface of a mirror.

I know always that I am an outsider; a stranger in this century and among those who are still men. Lovecraft, O The above fragment was translated as: The proposed revised version would be as follows: There is a number of lexical choices in the course of the story which seem to influence mood and evoke laughter more than fear as in the initial sentences of the text: Wretched is he who looks back upon lone hours in vast and dismal chambers with brown hangings and maddening rows of antique books, or upon awed watches in twilight groves of grotesque, gigantic, and vine-encumbered trees that silently wave twisted branches far aloft.

Lovecraft, O The above fragment is translated as: Lipski used an archaism which again overstates the quality of the groves. Another thing to consider is the fact that this is the opening paragraph of the story and due to choices of the translator, a Polish reader could well be discouraged and reject the story as simply badly written. Another example supports this: Once I tried to escape from the forest, but as I went farther from the castle the shade grew denser and the air more filled with brooding fear; so that I ran frantically back lest I lose my way in a labyrinth of nighted silence.

A proposed translation, including a minor correction of the entire sentence could be follows: The adjective dank addresses the sense of touch, smell, feeling and is synonymous to damp, not to dark, as interpreted by the translator.

Finally Lipski does not preserve the intentional use of italics, as is seen in the fragment: Similarly as in the case of other texts, the translation contains a number of fragments which may require a thorough revision.

The city, hidden deep in the sands of the desert holds a mystery which the first person narrator explores, discovering traces of a reptillian civilisation out of this world in the ruins. Other fragments which could be possibly revised include: Lovecraft, NC The above fragment is translated as: The narrator is an explorer educated in ancient cultures.

The proposed correction would thus be: Inversion often used by Lovecraft is hardly ever preserved in the translation, despite the fact that Polish syntax is similar in terms of altering the word order for poetical purposes as done by Lovecraft. In and out amongst the shapeless foundations of houses and palaces I wandered, finding never a carving or inscription to tell of those men, if men they were, who built the city and dwelt therein so long ago. Therefore, a revised version could be proposed: Furthermore, the syntax used by Lovecraft is often intricate, including long sentences with multiple clauses.

When coupled with inversion, they need to be translated very carefully in order not to confuse the reader. This issue is exemplified by the following fragment and its Polish version: Although the use of standard word order might be helpful in facilitating the comprehension of the text, the sentence is rather bulky and dense. A proposed correction attempts to present Lovecraft's style more faithfully: Lipski's translation presents contradictory logic in several fragments.

Below are some of the most prominent examples. I saw no sculptures nor frescoes, there were many singular stones clearly shaped into symbols by artificial means. The lowness of the chiselled chamber was very strange, for I could hardly more than kneel upright; but the area was so great that my torch shewed only part at a time. The following sentence in translation mentions a chamber of sculptures, whereas it is merely chiselled and contains no ornaments of any sort. The use of a coma instead of a semicolon is ambiguous and requires extra attention from the reader, as to decide who is really to kneel, the narrator or the chamber.

Night had now approached, yet the tangible things I had seen made curiosity stronger than fear, so that I did not flee from the long moon-cast shadows that had daunted me when first I saw the nameless city. Lovecraft, NC This is translated as: Contradictions continue when the narrator further describes the architecture of the nameless city.

Their engineering skill must have been vast. Apart from the issues of coherence and logic, a number of the translator's lexical choices may require revision as their accuracy in rendering Lovecraft's style is dubious. This display of sympathy was not in any way intended by Lovecraft and alters the mood of the story. In the darkness there flashed before my mind fragments of my cherished treasury of daemoniac lore; sentences from Alhazred the mad Arab, paragraphs from the apocryphal nightmares of Damascius, and infamous lines from the delirious Image du Monde of Gauthier de Metz.

I repeated queer extracts, and muttered of Afrasiab and the daemons that floated with him down the Oxus; The above fragment is translated as: This influences the dynamics of the narrator's utterance. A following correction is thus proposed: As the narrator progresses deeper into the ruins of the nameless city, he reports: I saw that the passage was a long one, so floundered ahead rapidly in a creeping run that would have seemed horrible had any eye watched me in the blackness; crossing from side to side occasionally to feel of my surroundings and be sure the walls and rows of cases still stretched on.

The above fragment is translated as: Not surprisingly, the standard word order is used instead of inversion. The revised translation is an attempt to amend these deviations from the style of the author: Appendix A — Robert P. Lipski tends not to be accurate in translating the style of H. He quite frequently omits or adds words in an unnecessary manner, deleting particularly those words which Lovecraft used to emphasise his characters' knowledge of antiquity.

This and further syntax modifications alter the sentences significantly, imbalance their dynamics and what is most important, change the meaning of the fragments.

What is more, some fragments translated by Lipski seem to be rather illogical and contradictory. Lastly, some of his lexical choices, such as artificially inserted diminutives or unfortunate archaic forms, are by no means frightening to the reader and in fact spoil the carefully constructed mood. Both of these are rather brief prose poems, based on Lovecraft's dreams which sets both text in an ethereal, surreal atmosphere of the unknown and the sublime.

It may seem that the texts by Kopacz are insufficient to be analysed because of their modest length. They are however, as prose poems, full of stylistic means and thus represent the style of the author vividly. What is more Mateusz Kopacz translated S. Joshi's H. A life, which is a rather exhaustive biography of the author.

He also reviewed and corrected some of the stories translated by others. As he is one of the chief editors of www. It is interpreted as the illustration of Lovecraft's fear of the often prophesied fall of civilisation Joshi, The initial analysis of the story allowed for a generally positive evaluation. Sentence structure, logic and the use of inversion are preserved. It may be seen as an attempt to make the style of the author less confusing. It seems that only the last paragraph of the story may require slight revision.

It no longer describes what is happening to the crowds in the city and is more of a dreamscape, or a nightmarescape to be more precise.

Screamingly sentient, dumbly delirious, only the gods that were can tell. A sickened, sensitive shadow writhing in hands that are not hands, and whirled blindly past ghastly midnights of rotting creation, corpses of dead worlds with sores that were cities, charnel winds that brush the pallid stars and make them flicker low.

Beyond the worlds vague ghosts of monstrous things; half-seen columns of unsanctified temples that rest on nameless rocks beneath space and reach up to dizzy vacua above the spheres of light and darkness. And through this revolting graveyard of the universe the muffled, maddening beating of drums, and thin, monotonous whine of blasphemous flutes from inconceivable, unlighted chambers beyond Time; the detestable pounding and piping whereunto dance slowly, awkwardly, and absurdly the gigantic, tenebrous ultimate gods —the blind, voiceless, mindless gargoyles whose soul is Nyarlathotep.

Lovecraft, N The above fragment is translated as: This paragraph may be the most intricate construction in the entire story. The first person narrator travels through a garden at night and sees his surroundings transform completely as another Lovecraftian dreamscape is painted before his eyes. Kopacz is rather careful in his translation; he tends, however, to add words or perform minor lexical changes to sentences, for example in the following case: It was in the spectral summer when the moon shone down on the old garden where I wandered; the spectral summer of narcotic flowers and humid seas of foliage that bring wild and many-coloured dreams.

Lovecraft, WMB The above fragment is translated as: It is said that the water is still, before being moved to reveal the shore.

One of the final sentences of the text, a description of a horror, has undergone a major transformation: And when I saw that this reef was but the black basalt crown of a shocking eikon whose monstrous forehead now shone in the dim moonlight and whose vile hooves must paw the hellish ooze miles below, I shrieked and shrieked lest the hidden face rise above the waters, and lest the hidden eyes look at me after the slinking away of that leering and treacherous yellow moon.

The proposed revision of this fragment is as follows: See Appendix B — Mateusz Kopacz 3. He translated two texts modest in length and apart from a few revisions in terms of syntax and sentence logic, he may be deemed as a rather accurate translator. At times he attempts to lift the style and adds words to clarify certain sentences. Alliterative qualities of Lovecraft's prose poems are partially preserved in Kopacz's translations, yet in some fragments, the style is translated in a slightly exaggerated manner.

Despite a small number of texts their length is rather substantial, contrary to the texts translated by Kopacz and they provide more material for analysis. The story, written in describes, in third person narration the life of a young antiquarian, Charles Dexter Ward, who gradually becomes mad due to the nature of his studies.

The main text is preceded by a quote from a fictional almanach concerning necromancy, written by Borellus: The essential Saltes of Animals may be so prepared and preserved, that an ingenious Man may have the whole Ark of Noah in his own Studie, and raise the fine Shape of an Animal out of its Ashes at his Pleasure; and by the lyke Method from the essential Saltes of humane Dust, a Philosopher may, without any criminal Necromancy, call up the Shape of any dead Ancestour from the Dust whereinto his Bodie has been incinerated.

It may be suspected that it was omitted due to editorial limitations. In many cases, new sentences and paragraphs are started, while simply a semicolon is used by Lovecraft to divide phrases in his text. There are also discrepancies in the numeration and division of the chapters.

The changes in typography, however, affect the overall rhythm of the story and illustrate the translator's tendency to manipulate it in excess both in terms of layout and lexical changes, which involve frequent adjectival additions. Lovecraft, CDW This is translated as: Lovecraft but rather the rendition of the text done by the translator. A revised translation is proposed: Willett, indeed, presents a minor mystery all his own in his connexion with the case. Possibly due to a misunderstanding of the original sentence, the translator changes the context entirely and reports that Willett denies having had anything to do with the escape of the patient.

Such a change influences the perception of the character. The sole statement is quite blunt, instead of introducing one of the elements of the mystery which are to be explained later in the course of the story. The revised translation could be as follows: First of all, there is not a single mention of any 'dark cover'.

The above additions are an example of a major inaccuracy in translating Lovecraft's style. Lexical additions persist in fragments such as one below. About the second week Charles began to be absent from the house for long periods, and one day when good old black Hannah[..

The short novel contains a substantial number of italicised quotes in Middle English, mostly letters exchanged between the necromancers, often describing their ways and rituals.

The information they include is important in Willet's investigation about the origins of Ward's insanity. Job XIV. Lovecraft, CDW The above fragment is translated as: Thus, a revised translation would sound as follows: Some of his proposed additions are rather exaggerated. Some paragraphs are significantly altered both in terms of syntax and meaning, due to recurring misunderstanding of the text by the translator.

The story was written in and marks the mature stage of Lovecraft's fiction. The first person narrator visits an old man, Ammi Pierce, local to the parts around the fictional city of Arkham, Massachusetts. The initial analysis of the story show only two parts which might require slight revision.

Grzybowska is very careful in her translation of Lovecraft's style, as seen in the fragment below: It was a scene from a vision of Fuseli, and over all the rest reigned that riot of luminous amorphousness, that alien and undimensioned rainbow of cryptic poison from the well —seething, feeling, lapping, reaching, scintillating, straining, and malignly bubbling in its cosmic and unrecognisable chromaticism.

Lovecraft, CS Translated as: Contrary to other translators, Grzybowska does not divide the long, complex utterance into parts and retains the original length.

What is more, all of the used lexical items are successfully and accurately translated without any repetitions. Apart from these tentative suggestions, this Lovecraftian paragraph seems to be translated as accurately as possible.

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There are, however, several fragments which may require revision: The five cats had left some time before, but their going was scarcely noticed since there now seemed to be no mice, and only Mrs. Gardner had made pets of the graceful felines. Gardner was making cat-like noises when closed in the attic after her husband deemed her as insane. There is no mention of any sounds being made in the original sentence.

This is probably due to a misunderstanding or rather an over-interpretation of the fragment by Grzybowska. A following could be revision is proposed: Zenas needed no calming. He had come of late to do nothing but stare into space and obey what his father told him; and Ammi thought that his fate was very merciful.

Lovecraft, CS The above fragment is translated as: In the revised version, the sentence could end with. Grzybowska chose to normalise the dialect of farmers around Arkham. The last time Nahum Gardner ever speaks to Ammi, he says: Lovecraft, CS His words are translated as: Nahum is terrified as he dies and standard speech may sound rather too calm for a man who witnessed horrors.

Applying any dialectal form for his utterance could be proposed as a revision, for example: Apart from the mentioned fragments requiring slight revision, Grzybowska's translations seem to be the most accurate out of the stories analysed so far.

The syntactic structures as well as lexical choices are carefully transformed into Polish. A fragment from The Colour out of Space is subject to close analysis in the later part of this chapter. See Appendix D — Ryszarda Grzybowska 3. The first one contains the results of the initial research, based on various visions and accounts and an attempt to identify an idol depicting a creature unknown to man.

The second part concerns a police investigation on the swamps of Louisiana, which exposes one of the meeting places used by the cultists. In the final part, stranded sailors stumble upon an unknown island only to realise in horror that it is a place not from our world, inhabited by the creature seen on idols and in visions. In the initial paragraph, conscious of the maddening knowledge that came into his possession, he states: We live on a placid island of ignorance in the midst of black seas of infinity, and it was not meant that we should voyage far.

Lovecraft, CC The above excerpt is translated as: In another fragment an artist recounts his dream vision to the researcher: At times the Latin words used by Lovecraft become quite a challege, as in the description of the idol portraying Cthulhu. A curious lexical choice is noted in the following fragment: These however, are rather recent in language, so perhaps the revision would not be necessary at all.

Yet another ambiguity is presented in the fragment containing a direct description of Cthulhu: The Thing of the idols, the green, sticky spawn of the stars, had awaked to claim his own. The stars were right again, and what an age-old cult had failed to do by design, a band of innocent sailors had done by accident. After vigintillions of years great Cthulhu was loose again, and ravening for delight.

Po niezliczonych latach wielki Cthulhu byl znowu wolny i spragniony uciechy. A revised version is proposed: Apart from the ambiguities, similarly as in The Colour out of Space Grzybowska slightly misunderstands some of Lovecraft's lexical choices. The first quote comes from the introduction of a renowned scholar.. As the cult is further researched and explained, the next fragment tells of the practices in the far North.

It was a faith of which other Esquimaux knew little, and which they mentioned only with shudders, saying that it had come down from horribly ancient aeons before ever the world was made. Besides nameless rites and human sacrifices there were certain queer hereditary rituals addressed to a supreme elder devil or tornasuk; Lovecraft, CC The above excerpt is translated as: Finally, in the quote containing a description of the sunken city of R'lyeh where Cthulhu awakes, Grzybowska demonstrates a general accuracy in translating Lovecraft's style, despite minor choices which might require revision.

The unknown, unimaginable city, where even the sun is not normal is revealed as truly out of this world. The adjectives used by the author are rendered in accordance to the atmosphere of the story. They are not, however, free of ambiguous lexical choices and unnecessary alterations. There is a slight inconsistency in following Lovecraft's manner of using Greco-Latin words. In some cases, Grzybowska inverts the meanings used by Lovecraft, which imbalances the logic of the sentence, bordering on incoherence.

Despite the above, Grzybowska uses a wide variety of lexemes when translating complex descriptions and presents herself as a careful, if imperfect, translator.

He is, however, the only contemporary translator whose works were corrected in newer editions of the author's stories. The artist is not a welcome member of the local art club because his works portray monsters gnawing on human flesh in disturbing detail.

Unlike most first person narrators in Lovecraft's stories, Thurber is very expressive, direct and uses coloquial language. As he recounts what Pickman told him before, a narrative within a narrative is used by the author. In the fragment below there are a number of inconsistencies between the original version and the translation. Reid or Joe Minot or Bosworth did. Boston never had a greater painter than Richard Upton Pickman.

That, you remember, was when Minot cut him. There is also the question of the final sentence of the fragment. There was none of the exotic technique you see in Sidney Sime, none of the trans-Saturnian landscapes and lunar fungi that Clark Ashton Smith uses to freeze the blood. Omission is another phenomenon present in the translation of this fragment. Here—have another drink—I need one anyhow!

The final quote mentioned in the initial analysis of this story concerns sentence logic as well as a slight mood-alteration. That nauseous wizard had waked the fires of hell in pigment, and his brush had been a nightmare-spawning wand. Give me that decanter, Eliot! The initial analysis of Pickman's Model presents a number of various inaccuracies in translation.

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