Source: DAVIDSON, I. Biscuit Baking Technology. Source: Wrigley et al., Encyclopedia of Grain Science, Cookies, Biscuits, and Crackers. working and training in the manufacture of biscuits, cookies and crackers. Each manual provides a Biscuit, Cookies, and Cracker Manufacturing, Manual 4. download Manley's Technology of Biscuits, Crackers and Cookies - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi). × DRM-Free.
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Part 1 Management of technology: The technical department; Total quality management and HACCP; Quality control and GMP; Process and efficiency control;. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Number Mauley's technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies. Fourth edition. Related titles from Woodhead's food science, technology and nutrition list Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies Third edition Duncan Manley 'Clear, .
Part 2 Materials and ingredients: Choosing materials for production; Wheat flour and vital wheat gluten; Meals, grits, flours and starches; Sugars and syrups; Fats and oils; Emulsifiers and antioxidants; Milk products and egg; Dried fruits and nuts; Yeast and enzymes; Flavours, spices and flavour enhancers; Additives; Chocolate and cocoa; Packaging materials.
Part 3 Types of biscuits: Classification of biscuits; Cream crackers; Soda crackers; Savoury or snack crackers; Matzos and water biscuits; Puff biscuits; Hard sweet, semi-sweet and Garibaldi fruit sandwich biscuits; Short dough biscuits; Deposited soft dough and sponge drop biscuits; Wafer biscuits; Position of biscuits in nutrition; Miscellaneous biscuit-like products.
Part 4 Biscuit production processes and equipment: Bulk handling and metering of ingredients; Mixing and premixes; Sheeting, gauging and cutting; Laminating; Rotary moulding; Extruding and depositing; Baking; Biscuit cooling and handling; Secondary processing; Packaging and storage; Recycling, handling and disposal of waste materials. This book is designed to improve efficiency and encourage best practice in biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing plants.
In the time that has passed since the publication of the second edition the food industry has undergone revolutionary changes and this latest edition has benefited from a thorough revision of the entire book.
He is the author of the Biscuit, cookie and cracker manufacturing manuals and Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry , also published by Woodhead Publishing.
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After inversion, the solution is neutralised by the addition of soda. The invert syrup is sweeter than sugar and it contributes to a moist, tender texture in the biscuit. Leavening agents Yeast is normally used in the production of cream crackers. Soda is readily soluble and it reacts with acidulants in the dough in the presence of water, producing carbon dioxide and decomposing to salt and water. The speed of the reaction may be controlled by the type of acidulant used.
The leavening of the dough takes place during mixing and fermentation of the dough. This leavening agent decomposes completely when heated, producing carbon dioxide, ammonia and water. Fats Fats are a vitally important ingredient in achieving the texture, mouth feel, and the bite of the biscuit.
Crackers and hard biscuits have relatively low percentages of fats in the recipes, while soft cookies have high amounts of fat. Recipes with high fat contents require little water for producing a cohesive dough and produce soft, short doughs.
During mixing, the fat coats the flour particles and this inhibits hydration and interrupts the formation of the gluten. Fats also tend to inhibit the leavening action of the carbon dioxide diffusion in the dough during baking and this produces a softer, finer texture.
Where both fat and sugar amounts in the recipe are high, they combine to make a soft, syrupy, chewy texture. Typical blended vegetable dough fats are solid at ambient temperature and melt over a wide temperature range. Most fats used in biscuit making are melted below blood temperature In baking, our main concern with high fat recipes will be the spread of soft cookies on the steel baking band, which is mainly due to the melting of the fat.
Baking: the development of the biscuit structure and texture It will be seen from this brief consideration of biscuit ingredients and that there are complex chemical and physical changes taking place in the biscuit doughs and some of these are heat dependent.
The changes that are temperature dependent mainly take place during fermentation and later during baking. These changes are also highly dependent on the moisture content of the dough and the humidity of the baking chamber.
As we have seen, the water in the dough plays a vital role in achieving the biscuit texture and structure. It hydrates the protein allowing the gluten to form and develop and it hydrates the starch granules which swell and gelatinise. As the dough temperature rises, the gluten web swells and becomes strengthened and the structure of gas and air bubbles in the dough forms, causing an increase in volume of the dough pieces.
At this temperature, some of the moisture is released from the gluten and contributes to the starch hydration and gelatinisation.
The air bubbles in the dough are saturated with water and these expand rapidly as the temperature increases. This expansion creates a significant increase in volume of the dough piece during baking.
In biscuits, this process is partial as there is seldom enough water to fully gelatinise the starch. In short doughs with very little water, the starch gelatinisation is very limited. In order for the biscuit to reach an optimum volume, it is essential that the surface of the dough piece is not dried too quickly, making it rigid and preventing the expansion of the dough piece.
The dough piece surface must remain moist and flexible for as long as possible. As the dough pieces, at ambient temperature, enter the oven, some moisture will condense on their surfaces.
This not only keeps the surface of the dough pieces moist, but the condensation releases latent heat, which assists in raising the temperature of the dough. It is important to maintain a humid atmosphere in the first zone s of the oven and in some cases injecting steam into the baking chamber is also beneficial.
The physical and chemical changes noted above which form the texture and structure of the biscuit take place in the first half of the oven. They require not only temperature, but time as well.
In some trials it has been shown that there is a limit to the speed of the temperature increase, which if exceeded will result in a decline in quality of the biscuit. Moisture removal When the gluten and starch have been sufficiently hydrated and the structure of the biscuit is formed, the remaining free water must be evaporated.