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secret armies ranged from dozens in some nations to hundreds or even thousands limited work had been carried out on the phenomenon of the secret NATO. Full text of "Ganser - NATO's Secret Armies - Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe ().pdf (PDFy mirror)". See other formats. CONTENTS. Daniele Ganser is a Senior Researcher at the Center for Security Studies at the Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. He studied at Basel .

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Natos Secret Armies Pdf

Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe, who joins us for a fascinating . absolutely and beyond any doubt that NATO had secret armies, called Gladio in Italy and stay behind in [external PDF]. This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret. In , the existence of a secret anti-Communist stay-behind army in Italy, codenamed 'Gladio' and linked to NATO, was revealed. Subsequently, similar.

Aber beginnen wir am Anfang. Die eigentliche Idee, geboren aus den Erfahrungen des zweiten Weltkrieges war gar nicht so schlecht. Diese geheimen Armee, auch stay-behind genannt, sollten im Falle einer Invasion, den Kontakt zur Exilregierung halten und den Widerstand im Land organisieren. Wenn man dieses Buch liest, erkennt man, was da gerade in der Ukraine passiert, denn es ist schon mehrfach passiert, und die NATO verwendet immer noch die alten Methoden der 60er Jahre und irgendwie fallen die Leute doch immer noch darauf hinein. Der Absturz der polnischen Regierung vor ein paar Jahren die wollten eine Mittelmacht etablieren, die sich weder an Ost noch an West bindet. Die Banken? Die amerikanischen Oligarchen? Wem sollten wir da wohl eher trauen?

At one point in his book Ganser talks about the CIA's covert action policies as being "terrorist in nature" and then accuses the CIA of using their "networks for political terrorism". The CIA responded by noting that Daniele Ganser's sourcing is "largely secondary" and that Ganser himself has complained about "not being able to find any official sources to support his charges of the CIA's or any Western European government's involvement with Gladio".

The existence of these clandestine NATO units remained a closely guarded secret throughout the Cold War until , when the first branch of the international network was discovered in Italy.

NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe

It was code-named Gladio , the Italian word for a short double-edged sword [ gladius ]. While the press said that the NATO stay-behind units were 'the best-kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II', the Italian government, amidst sharp public criticism, promised to close down the secret army. Italy insisted identical clandestine units had also existed in all other countries of Western Europe. Upon learning of the discovery, the parliament of the European Union EU drafted a resolution sharply criticizing the fact.

Bush refused to comment. If Gladio was effectively "the best-kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II", [12] it must be underlined, however, that on several occasions, arms caches were discovered and stay-behind paramilitary organizations officially dissolved. NATO's "stay-behind" organizations were never called upon to resist a Soviet invasion. According to media analyst Edward S. Andreotti spoke of a "structure of information, response and safeguard", with arms caches and reserve officers.

He gave to the Commissione Stragi , the parliamentary commission led by senator Giovanni Pellegrino in charge of investigations on bombings committed during the Years Of Lead in Italy, a list of civilians who according to him were part of Gladio. Andreotti also stated that weapons caches had been dismantled, and said that Gladio had not been involved in any of the bombings committed from the s to the s.

It didn't include, for example, Antonio Arconte, who described an organization very different from the one brushed by Giulio Andreotti: These representatives of the secret structures met every year in one of the capitals At the stay-behind meetings representatives of the CIA were always present.

They had no voting rights and were from the CIA headquarters of the capital in which the meeting took place During peacetime, the activities of the ACC "included elaborating the directives for the network, developing its clandestine capability and organising bases in Britain and the United States.

In wartime, it was to plan stay-behind operations in conjunction with SHAPE; organisers were to activate clandestine bases and organise operations from there". The same year, the European Parliament sharply condemned NATO and the United States in a resolution for having manipulated European politics with the stay-behind armies.

New legislation governing intelligence agencies' missions and methods was passed in , following two government inquiries and the creation of a permanent parliamentary committee in , which was to bring them under the authority of Belgium's federal agencies.

The Commission was created following events in the s, which included the Brabant massacres and the activities of far right group Westland New Post. The Danish stay-behind army was code-named Absalon , after a Danish archbishop , and led by E. It was hidden in the military secret service Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste FE. In , William Colby , former director of the CIA , released his memoirs in which he described the setting-up of stay-behind armies in Scandinavia: The situation in each Scandinavian country was different.

Norway and Denmark were NATO allies, Sweden held to the neutrality that had taken her through two world wars, and Finland were required to defer in its foreign policy to the Soviet power directly on its borders. Thus, in one set of these countries the governments themselves would build their own stay-behind nets, counting on activating them from exile to carry on the struggle.

These nets had to be co-ordinated with NATO's plans, their radios had to be hooked to a future exile location, and the specialised equipment had to be secured from CIA and secretly cached in snowy hideouts for later use.

In other set of countries, CIA would have to do the job alone or with, at best, "unofficial" local help, since the politics of those governments barred them from collaborating with NATO, and any exposure would arouse immediate protest from the local Communist press, Soviet diplomats and loyal Scandinavians who hoped that neutrality or nonalignment would allow them to slip through a World War III unharmed.

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The former director of DGSE , admiral Pierre Lacoste, alleged in a interview with The Nation , that certain elements from the network were involved in terrorist activities against de Gaulle and his Algerian policy.

Grossouvre would have asked Constantin Melnik, leader of the French secret services during the Algerian War of Independence —62 , to return to activity. He was living in comfortable exile in the US, where he maintained links with the Rand Corporation.

Constantin Melnik is alleged to have been involved in the creation in of the Ordre Souverain du Temple Solaire , an ancestor of the Order of the Solar Temple , created by former A. US intelligence also assisted in the set up of a German stay-behind network. Heinrich Hoffman and Lt. Hans Rues—and one was run by Lt. Documents shown to the Italian parliamentary terrorism committee revealed that in the s British and French officials involved in the network visited a training base in Germany built with US money.

In , the secret service BND secretary Heidrun Hofer was arrested after having revealed the secrets of the German stay-behind army to her husband, who was a spy of the KGB.

Eisler's "The Detachment" source note: NATO's Secret Armies Operation Gladio

He went into details about recruiting partisans for the German stay-behind network. A man with the name he put on file was arrested by the KGB following treason in the BND, but was obviously innocent, his name having been chosen at random from the public phone book by Juretzko. When the network was dismantled, further odd details emerged. One fellow "spymaster" had kept the radio equipment in his cellar at home with his wife doing the engineering test call every four months, on the grounds that the equipment was too "valuable" to remain in civilian hands.

Juretzko found out because this spymaster had dismantled his section of the network so quickly, there had been no time for measures such as recovering all caches of supplies. Civilians recruited as stay-behind partisans were equipped with a clandestine shortwave radio with a fixed frequency.

It had a keyboard with digital encryption, making use of traditional Morse code obsolete. They had a cache of further equipment for signalling helicopters or submarines to drop special agents who were to stay in the partisan's homes while mounting sabotage operations against the communists.

Former CIA agent Philip Agee , who was sharply criticized in the US for having revealed sensitive information, insisted that "paramilitary groups, directed by CIA officers, operated in the sixties throughout Europe [and he stressed that] perhaps no activity of the CIA could be as clearly linked to the possibility of internal subversion.

Under the command of paratrooper Lieutenant Colonel Costas Aslanides , LOK took control of the Greek Defence Ministry while Brigadier General Stylianos Pattakos gained control of communication centers, parliament, the royal palace, and according to detailed lists, arrested over 10, people.

According to Ganser, Phillips Talbot , the US ambassador in Athens, disapproved of the military coup which established the " Regime of the Colonels " — , complaining that it represented "a rape of democracy"—to which Jack Maury, the CIA chief of station in Athens, answered, "How can you rape a whore?

Arrested and then exiled in Canada and Sweden, Andreas Papandreou later returned to Greece, where he won the election , forming the first socialist government of Greece's post-war history. According to his own testimony, Ganser alleges, he discovered the existence of the secret NATO army, then codenamed "Red Sheepskin", as acting prime minister in and had given orders to dissolve it. Following Giulio Andreotti's revelations in , the Greek defence minister confirmed that a branch of the network, known as Operation Sheepskin, operated in his country until This was denied by the US State Department , who responded that "the Greek terrorist organization ' 17 November " was responsible for both assassinations", and that Grivas's central piece of evidence had been the Westmoreland Field Manual which the state department, as well as an independent congressional inquiry have alleged to be a Soviet forgery.

Speculation that the Netherlands was involved in Gladio arose from the accidental discovery of large arms caches in and In , then-Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers told the Dutch Parliament that his office was running a secret organisation that had been set up inside the Dutch defence ministry in the s, but denied it was supervised directly by NATO or other foreign bodies.

He went to inform that successive prime ministers and defence chiefs had always preferred not to inform other Cabinet members or Parliament about the secret organization. It was modeled on the nation's World War II experiences of having to evacuate the royal family and transfer government to a government-in-exile, [43] originally aiming to provide an underground intelligence network to a government-in-exile in the event of a foreign invasion, although it included elements of guerilla warfare.

Former Dutch Defence Minister Henk Vredeling confirmed the group had set up arms caches around the Netherlands for sabotage purposes. Already in , it was known that the weapons cache near Velp, while accidentally 'discovered' in , had been plundered partially before.

It still contained dozens of hand grenades, semiautomatic rifles, automatic pistols, munitions and explosives at the time of discovery, but five hand grenades had gone missing. It was located in a park near Scheveningen.

Some of the stolen weapons, including hand grenades and machine guns, later turned up when police officials arrested criminals John Mieremet and Sam Klepper in The Dutch military intelligence agency MIVD feared at the time that disclosure of the Gladio history of these weapons would have been politically sensitive. SHAPE denied these allegations. Eventually, the matter was resolved in , after Norway was assured about how stay-behind networks were to be operated.

In , the police discovered an arms cache and radio equipment at a mountain cabin and arrested Hans Otto Meyer, a businessman accused of being involved in selling illegal alcohol. Meyer claimed that the weapons were supplied by Norwegian intelligence.

As one of the nations that prompted the Truman Doctrine , Turkey is one of the first countries to participate in Operation Gladio and, some say, the only country where it has not been purged. In Austria, the first secret stay-behind army was exposed in He later explained that "we bought cars under this name. The Commission was created following events in the s, which included the Brabant massacres and the activities of far right group Westland New Post. It was hidden in the military secret service Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste FE.

In , William Colby , former director of the CIA , released his memoirs in which he described the setting-up of stay-behind armies in Scandinavia : [28] The situation in each Scandinavian country was different. Norway and Denmark were NATO allies, Sweden held to the neutrality that had taken her through two world wars, and Finland were required to defer in its foreign policy to the Soviet power directly on its borders.

Thus, in one set of these countries the governments themselves would build their own stay-behind nets, counting on activating them from exile to carry on the struggle. These nets had to be co-ordinated with NATO's plans, their radios had to be hooked to a future exile location, and the specialised equipment had to be secured from CIA and secretly cached in snowy hideouts for later use.

In other set of countries, CIA would have to do the job alone or with, at best, "unofficial" local help, since the politics of those governments barred them from collaborating with NATO, and any exposure would arouse immediate protest from the local Communist press, Soviet diplomats and loyal Scandinavians who hoped that neutrality or nonalignment would allow them to slip through a World War III unharmed. The former director of DGSE , admiral Pierre Lacoste, alleged in a interview with The Nation , that certain elements from the network were involved in terrorist activities against de Gaulle and his Algerian policy.

NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe

Grossouvre would have asked Constantin Melnik, leader of the French secret services during the Algerian War of Independence —62 , to return to activity. He was living in comfortable exile in the US, where he maintained links with the Rand Corporation. Constantin Melnik is alleged to have been involved in the creation in of the Ordre Souverain du Temple Solaire, an ancestor of the Order of the Solar Temple , created by former A.

Heinrich Hoffman and Lt. Hans Rues—and one was run by Lt. He went into details about recruiting partisans for the German stay-behind network. A man with the name he put on file was arrested by the KGB following treason in the BND, but was obviously innocent, his name having been chosen at random from the public phone book by Juretzko. When the network was dismantled, further odd details emerged.

One fellow "spymaster" had kept the radio equipment in his cellar at home with his wife doing the engineering test call every four months, on the grounds that the equipment was too "valuable" to remain in civilian hands.

NATO's Secret Armies: Operation Gladio and Terrorism in Western Europe

Juretzko found out because this spymaster had dismantled his section of the network so quickly, there had been no time for measures such as recovering all caches of supplies. It had a keyboard with digital encryption, making use of traditional Morse code obsolete.

They had a cache of further equipment for signalling helicopters or submarines to drop special agents who were to stay in the partisan's homes while mounting sabotage operations against the communists. Former CIA agent Philip Agee , who was sharply criticized in the US for having revealed sensitive information, insisted that "paramilitary groups, directed by CIA officers, operated in the sixties throughout Europe [and he stressed that] perhaps no activity of the CIA could be as clearly linked to the possibility of internal subversion.

Under the command of paratrooper Lieutenant Colonel Costas Aslanides , LOK took control of the Greek Defence Ministry while Brigadier General Stylianos Pattakos gained control of communication centers, parliament, the royal palace, and according to detailed lists, arrested over 10, people. In all cases identical techniques were used. The intelligence services made an effort to establish distinct networks for spying on the occupiers, that is espionage, and for sabotage, or subverting an enemy occupation.

Intelligence services provided some training, placed caches of arms, ammunition, radio equipment, and other items for their networks, and set up regular channels for contact. The number of recruits for the secret armies ranged from dozens in some nations to hundreds or even thousands in others.

The Resistance example was always an obvious one. Observers of the secret Cold War assumed the existence of the networks; so there are occasional references to the stay-behind networks in spy memoirs and literature.

But by and large the subject was acknowledged with a wink and a nod. Until almost the end of the Cold War. Over the years since there has been a recurrent stream of revelations regarding similar networks in many European nations, and in a number of countries there have been official investigations.

This is a significant and disturbing history. The notion of the project in the intelligence services undoubtedly began as an effort to create forces that would remain quiescent until war brought them into play. Sometimes these efforts involved violence, even terrorism, and sometimes the terrorists made use of the very equipment furnished to them for their Cold War function.

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