The story of my experiments with truth. TRANSLATED FROM THE GUJARATI. BY MAHADEV DESAI. GANDHI BOOK CENTRE. Bombay Sarvodaya Mandal. I simply want to tell the story of my numerous experiments with truth, and as my But I shall not mind, if every page of it speaks only of my experiments. I believe. THE STORY OF MY EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH. Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography Sathiya Sodhani is one book which guides you as to what is right and wrong. This book is an autobiography of Gandhi.
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Gandhi Autobiography or The Story of Experiments with Truth PDF, Mohandas K. Gandhi Autobiografia Minha Vida E Minhas Experiencias Com A Verdade. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. truth, and as my life consists of nothing but those experiments, the story. An Autobiography or The Story of my Experiments with Truth Download Gandhis autobiography as pdf ebook in full length here ( pages).
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English Hindi Marathi Gujarati. Printed and Published by: Navajivan Mudranalaya, Ahemadabad India Email: Navajivan Mudranalaya, Ahemadabad India. National Book Trust, India. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, K.
Publication Division, New Delhi , India. With Forewords by: Translated fron the Gujarati by: Valji Govindji Desai.
Translated from Gujarati by: Translated from the Gujarati by: Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad - , India. Publication Division, New Delhi, India. Compiled from 'Mahatma Gandhi: Edited by: Edited By: Ramachandran T.
Selected and Compiled with an Introduction by: Bharti Mazmudar. The Albert Einstein Institution. Inner Ocean Publishing, California. Translated from the Original Gujarati by: Compiled and Edited by: Bharatan Kumarappa.
Translated from the original Gujarati by: Divya Joshi. Abridged and Simplified with Topics for Essays by: Transmitted by: Tulika Publishers, Chennai , India. Asia Publishing House. Chitra Desai. Gurdial Mallik. Museum Street London. Edited with Introduction and Notes by: Srinivasa Murthy.
Gujarat Loksamiti, Ahmedabad, India. Mumbai Sarvodaya Mandal and Trusteeship Foundation. Sandhya Mehta. Bharati Mazmudar. With a foreword by: Sarojini Naidu. English Translation by: Hudlikar, Mumbai. Foreword by: Usha Chandrasekhar Published by: Sahitya Mandira Bangalore.
Yagna Prakashan Vadodara , India. Translated and Edited by: Jitendra Nath Mohanty. Sarva Seva Sangh, Varanasi. Paramdham Prakashan Pavnar , Dist.
Wardha, MS, India. Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India. Digital Library of India. Mahadev Desai Printed and Published by: Book Online PDF. Gandhi's Autobiography: Moral Lessons By: Gangrade Published by: Sitaram Patwardhan Published by: Gandhiji's Autobiography Abridged Abridged by: Bharatan Kumarappa Printed and Published by: Gandhiji's Autobiography Abridged - Kannada Courtesy: A Life By: Krishna Kripalani Published by: Mohandas K.
Palas Athena. Louis Fischer Published by: Epigrams from Gandhiji Gandhi Quotes Written by: Gandhi Compiled by: Tikekar Published by: Nirmal Kumar Bose Published by: Rao With Forewords by: India Of My Dreams By: Krishna Kripalani Compiled: Prabhu With a foreword by: Rajendra Prasad. Gandhi Published by: Unto This Last a paraphrase Written by: Gandhi Translated fron the Gujarati by: From Yeravda Mandir Written by: Gandhi Translated from Gujarati by: Valji Govindji Desai Published by: Trusteeship Written by: Ravindra Kelekar.
The Law and The Lawyers Written by: Kher Published by: Satyagraha in South Africa Written by: Gandhi Translated from the Gujarati by: Valji Govindji Desai General Editor: Shriman Narayan Published by: Selected Letters of Mahatma Gandhi Written by: Gandhi General Editor: Gandhiji Expects By: Vyas Published by: Prayer By: Chandrakant Kaji Published by: Gokhale My Political Guru By: Self-restraint v.
Self-indulgence By: Everyman's a Mahendra Meghani Published by: The Miracle of Calcutta By: Manubehn Gandhi Published by: Mahatma - Vol 1 to 8 By: Tendulkar Foreword by: Jawaharlal Nehru Published by: The Voice of Truth Written by: Pyarelal Compiled from 'Mahatma Gandhi: Gandhi Compiled and Edited by: Gandhi Edited By: My Non-violence By: Non-violence and Social Change Editor: Mathur Asst.
Sharma Published by: Carlos G. Contemporary Perspectives on Peace and Non-violence Edited by: Non-violent Warrior Dr. Bharti Mazmudar Published by: Mani Bhavan Gandhi Sangrahalaya. On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking About The Fundamentals By: Robert L. Hevley Published by: A Discipline For Non-violence By: Richard B.
Gregg Published by: Michael N. Nagler Foreword by: Arun Gandhi Published by: In order to placate both the Boer and other white settlers, the British adopted a number of racist policies, and while the Indians, most of them working on sugar and coffee plantations, did not suffer as much as the black population, they clearly experienced a treatment as second-class citizens.
Gandhi repeatedly experienced the sting of humiliation during his long African sojourn. The incident at Maritzburg, where Gandhi was thrown off the train has become justly famous. When Gandhi, as a matter of principle, refused to leave the first class compartment, he was thrown off the train.
Very soon after his arrival, Gandhi's initial bafflement and indignation at racist policies turned into a growing sense of outrage and propelled him into assuming a position as a public figure at the assembly of Transvaal Indians, where he delivered his first speech urging Indians not to accept inequality but instead to unite, work hard, learn English and observe clean living habits.
Although Gandhi's legal work soon start to keep him busy, he found time to read some of Tolstoy's work, which greatly influenced his understanding of peace and justice and eventually inspired him to write to Tolstoy, setting the beginning of a prolific correspondence.
Both Tolstoy and Gandhi shared a philosophy of non-violence and Tolstoy's harsh critique of human society resonated with Gandhi's outrage at racism in South Africa.
Both Tolstoy and Gandhi considered themselves followers of the Sermon on the Mount from the New Testament, in which Jesus Christ expressed the idea of complete self-denial for the sake of his fellow men.
Gandhi also continued to seek moral guidance in the Bhagavad-Gita, which inspired him to view his work not as self-denial at all, but as a higher form of self-fulfillment. Adopting a philosophy of selflessness even as a public man, Gandhi refused to accept any payment for his work on behalf of the Indian population, preferring to support himself with his law practice alone. But Gandhi's personal quest to define his own philosophy with respect to religion did not rely solely on sacred texts.
At the time, he also engaged in active correspondence with a highly educated and spiritual Jain from Bombay, his friend Raychandra, who was deeply religious, yet well versed in a number of topics, from Hinduism to Christianity.
The more Gandhi communicated with Raychandra, the more deeply he began to appreciate Hinduism as a non violent faith and its related scriptures. Yet, such deep appreciation also gave birth to a desire to seek inner purity and illumination, without solely relying on external sources, or on the dogma within every faith. Thus, although Gandhi sought God within his own tradition, he espoused the idea that other faiths remained worthy of study and contained their own truths.
Not surprisingly, even after his work assignment concluded, Gandhi soon found a reason to remain in South Africa. This pivotal reason involved the "Indian Franchise Bill", with which the Natal legislature intended to deprive Indians of the right to vote. No opposition existed against this bill, except among some of Gandhi's friends who asked him to stay in South Africa and work with them against this new injustice against Indians, who white South Africans disparagingly called "coolies.
Even in Natal, where Indians had more influence, they were not allowed to go out after 9 p. The new bill which prohibited Indians from voting in Natal only codified existing injustice in writing.
Although a last-minute petition drive failed to the Indian Franchise Bill from passing, Gandhi remained active and organized a much larger petition, which he sent to the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London, and distributed to the press in South Africa, Britain and India. The petition raised awareness of the plight of Indians and generating discussions in all three continents to the point where both the Times of London and the Times of India published editorials in support of the Indian right to the vote.
Gandhi also formed a new political organization called the Natal Indian Congress a clear reference to the Indian National Congress , which held regular meetings and soon, after some struggles with financing, started its own library and debating society. He was also thrown of the Train when he didn't agree to move from his first class seat which he paid for. Though, at first, Gandhi intended to remain in South Africa for a month, or a year at most, he ended up working in South Africa for about twenty years.
After his initial assignment was over, he succeeded in growing his own practice to about twenty Indian merchants who contracted manage their affairs. This work allowed him to both earn a living while also finding time to devote to his mission as a public figure. During his struggle against inequality and racial discrimination in South Africa, Gandhi became known among Indians all around the world as "Mahatma," or "Great Soul.
In , Gandhi made a brief return to India and returned to his wife and children. For the first time, Gandhi realized that Indians had come to admire his work greatly and experienced a taste of his own popularity among the people, when he visited Madras, an Indian province, where most manual laborers had originated. Although his fellow-Indians greeted him in large crowds with applause and adulation, he sailed back to South Africa with his family in December Gandhi had become very well known in South Africa as well, to the point where a crowd of rioters awaited him at Port Natal, determined that he should not be allowed to enter.
Many of them also mistakenly believed that all the dark-skinned passenger on the ship that took Gandhi to Natal were poor Indian immigrants he had decided to bring along with him, when, in reality, these passengers were mostly returning Indian residents of Natal. Fortunately, Gandhi was able to establish a friendly relationship with the British in South Africa so the Natal port's police superintendent and his wife escorted him to safety.
After this incident, local white residents began to actually regard him with greater respect. As Gandhi resumed his work at the Natal Indian Congress, his loyalty to the British guided him to assist them in the Boer War, which started three years later. Because Gandhi remained a passionate pacifist, he wanted to participate in the Boer War without actually engaging in violence so he organized and led an Indian Medical Corps which served the British in a number of battles, including the important battle of Spion Kop in January At the time, Gandhi believed that the British Empire shared the values of liberty and equality that he himself embraced and that, by virtue of defending those principles, the British constitution deserved the loyalty of all British subjects, including Indians.
He viewed racist policy in South Africa as a temporary characteristic aberration, rather than a permanent tendency. With respect to the British in India, at this point in his life, Gandhi considered their rule beneficial and benevolent. The armed conflict between the British and Dutch raged on for over three years of often brutal fighting with the British conquering the Transvaal and Orange Free state territories.
Gandhi expected that the British victory would establish justice in South Africa and present him with an opportunity to return to India. He wanted to attend the meeting of the Indian National Congress, whose mission was to provide a social and political forum for the Indian upper class.
Founded in by the British, the Congress had no real political power and expressed pro-British positions. Gandhi wanted to attend its meeting nevertheless, as he was hoping to pass a resolution in support of the Indian population in South Africa.
Before he left for Bombay, Gandhi promised the Natal Indian Congress that he would return to support their efforts, should they need his help. As Gandhi attended the Indian National Congress, his hopes came true.
Gokhale, one of the most prominent Indian politicians of the time, supported the resolution for the rights of Indians in South Africa and the resolution passed. Through Gokhale, in whose house Gandhi stayed for a month, Gandhi met many political connections that would serve him later in life. However, his promise to always aid his friends in Natal soon prompted him to return to South Africa, when he received an urgent telegram informing him that the British and Boers had now formed a peaceful relationship and often acted together to the detriment of the Indian population, as Britain was planning to live local white individuals in power in South Africa, much like it had done in Canada and Australia.
Gandhi travelled back to South Africa immediately and met with Joseph Chamberlain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, and presented him with a paper on the injustice against the Indian population but Chamberlain indicated that the Indians would have to obey the new rulers of South Africa, now called the "Afrikaners," which included both Dutch and British local settlers.
Gandhi began to organize a fast response to this new South African political configuration. Instead of working in Natal, he now established a camp in the newly conquered Transvaal region and began helping Indians who had escaped from the war in that region, and now had to download overly expensive re-entry passes.
He also represented poor Indians whose dwellings in a shantytown the authorities had dispossessed. Gandhi also started a new magazine, Indian Opinion, that advocated for political liberty and equal rights in South Africa. The magazine, which initially included several young women from Europe, expanded its staff around the country, increasing both Gandhi's popularity and the public support for his ideas. At round same time, Gandhi read John Ruskin's book Unto This Last , which maintained that the life of manual labor was superior to all other ways of living.
As he adopted this belief, Gandhi chose to abandon Western dress and habits, and he moved his family and staff to a Transvaal farm called the Phoenix, where he even gave renounced the use of an oil-powered engine and printed Indian Opinion by hand-wheel, and performed agriculture labor using old, manual farming equipment. He began to conceive of his public work as a mission to restore old Indian virtue and civilization, rather than fall prey to modern Western influence, which included electricity and technology.
Between and , he also changed another aspect of his personal life by achieving Brahmacharya, or the voluntary abstention from sexual relations. He made this choice as part of his philosophy of selflessness and self-restraint. Finally, he also formulated his own philosophy of political protest, called Satyagraha, which literally meant "truth-force" in Sanskrit. In practice, this practice meant protesting injustice steadfastly, but in a non-violent manner.
He put this theory into practice on September 8, , when, at a large gathering of the Indian community in Transvaal, he asked the whole community to take a vow of disobedience to the law, as the Transvaal government had started an effort to register every Indian child over the age of eight, which would make them an official part of the South African population.
Setting a personal example, Gandhi became the first Indian to appear before a magistrate for his refusal to register, and he was sentenced to two months in prison.
He actually asked for a heavier sentence, a request, consistent with his philosophy of self-denial. After his release, Gandhi continued his campaign and thousands of Indians burned their registration cards, crossing the Transvaal-Natal border without passes. Many went to jail, including Gandhi, who went to jail again in Gandhi did not waiver when a South African General by the name of Jan Christiaan Smuts promised to eliminate the registration law, but broke his word. Gandhi went all the way to London in and gathered enough support among the British to convince Smuts to eliminate the law in Yet, the Transvaal Prime Minister continued to regard Indians as second-class citizens while the Cape Colony government passed another discriminatory law making all non-Christian marriages illegal, which meant that all Indian children would be considered born out of wedlock.
In addition, the government in Natal continued to impose crippling poll tax for entering Natal only upon Indians. In response to these strikingly unjust rules, Gandhi organized a large-scale satyagraha, which involved women crossing the Natal-Transvaal border illegally.
When they were arrested, five thousand Indian coal miners also went on strike and Gandhi himself led them across the Natalese border, where they expected arrest. Although Smuts and Gandhi did not agree on many points, they had respect for each other. In , Smuts relented due to the sheer number of Indians involved in protest and negotiated a settlement which provided for the legality of Indian marriages and abolished the poll tax.
Further, the import of indentured laborers from India was to be phased out by In July , Gandhi sailed for Britain, now admired as "Mahatma," and known throughout the world for the success of satyagraha.
Mahatma in the Midst of World Turmoil Gandhi was in England when World War I started and he immediately began organizing a medical corps similar to the force he had led in the Boer War, but he also faced health problems that caused him to return to India, where he met the applauding crowds with enthusiasm once again. Indians continued to refer to him as "Mahatma" or "Great Soul," an appellation reserved only for the holiest men of Hinduism.
While Gandhi accepted the love and admiration of the crowds, he also insisted that all souls were equal and did not accept the implication of religious sacredness that his new name carried. In order to retreat into a life of humility and restraint, as his personal principles mandated, he decided to withdraw from public life for a while spending his first year in India focusing on his personal quest for purity and healing. He also lived in a communal space with untouchables, a choice which many of his financial supporters resented, because they believed that the very presence of untouchables defiled higher-caste Indians.
Gandhi even considered moving to a district in Ahmedabad inhabited entirely by the untouchables when a generous Muslim merchant donated enough money to keep up his current living space for another year. By that time, Gandhi's communal life with the untouchables had become more acceptable.
Although Gandhi had withdrawn from public life, he briefly met with the British Governor of Bombay and future Viceroy of India , Lord Willington, whom Gandhi promised to consult before he launched any political campaigns.
Gandhi also felt the impact of another event, the passing of G. Gokhale, who had become his supporter and political mentor.