maroc-evasion.info Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Stamp, Mark. Information security: principles and practice / Mark Stamp. p. cm. Includes. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at maroc-evasion.info Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Stamp, Mark. Information. Information Security: Principles and Practice, Second Edition. Author(s). Mark Stamp. First published April Print ISBN |Online.
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Information Security: Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition Mark Stamp Taking a practical approach to information security by focusing on real-world. Information Security: Principles and Practice. Author(s). Mark Stamp. First published:9 September Print ISBN |Online. Information Security Principles and Practice Mark Stamp - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Now updated—your expert guide to twenty-first century information security Information security is a rapidly evolving field.
Taking a practical approach to information security by focusing on real-world examples, this book is organized around four major themes: In addition to his experience gained in private industry and academia, Dr. Stamp has seven years' experience working as a cryptanalyst at the U.
National Security Agency. He has written dozens of academic papers and two books on the topic of information security. Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. Table of contents Preface.
About The Author. Information Security: Principles and Practice , Second Edition Author s: Mark Stamp.
First published: Print ISBN: All rights reserved.
About this book Now updated—your expert guide to twenty-first century information security Information security is a rapidly evolving field. Taking a practical approach to information security by focusing on real-world examples, this book is organized around four major themes: In addition to his experience gained in private industry and academia, Dr.
Stamp has seven years' experience working as a cryptanalyst at the U. National Security Agency. He has written dozens of academic papers and two books on the topic of information security. Free Access. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. This page intentionally left blank 2. This page intentionally left blank 4. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as per- mitted under Section or of the United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Stamp, Mark. Information security: Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN hardback 1. Computer security.
A25S69 To Miles, Austin, and Melody, with love. This page intentionally left blank 8. Digital Signature Symmetric Key Public Key Encryption The Bottom Line Preface Please sir or madam won't you read my book?
It took me years to write, won't you take a look? One of my goals in writing this book was to illuminate some of those black boxes that are so popular in information security books today. On the other hand, I don't want to bore you to death with trivial details if that's what you want, go read some RFCs.
As a result, I often ignore details that I deem irrelevant to the topic at hand. You can judge whether I've struck the proper balance between these two competing goals. I've strived to keep the presentation moving along so as to cover a broad selection of topics. My goal is to cover each item in just enough detail so that you can appreciate the basic security issue at hand, while not getting bogged down in details.
I've also attempted to regularly emphasize and reiterate the main points so that crucial information doesn't slip by below the radar screen. Another goal of mine was to present the topic in a reasonably lively and interesting way. If any computing subject should be exciting and fun, it's information security.
Security is happening now and it's in the news—it's clearly alive and kicking.
I've also tried to inject a little humor into the material. They say that humor is derived from pain, so judging by the quality of my jokes, I'd say that I've led a charmed life. In any case, most of the really bad jokes are in footnotes so they shouldn't be too distracting. Some security textbooks offer a large dollop of dry useless theory. Reading one of those books is about as exciting as reading a calculus textbook. Other books offer a seemingly random collection of apparently unrelated facts, giv- ing the impression that security is not really a coherent subject at all.
Then there are books that present the topic as a collection of high-level managerial platitudes. Finally, some texts focus on the human factors in security. While all of these approaches have their place, I believe that, first and foremost, a xv Information security is a huge topic, and unlike more established fields, it's not clear what material should be included in a book like this, or how best to organize it.
I've chosen to organize this book around the following four major themes: The software theme is particularly flexible, and includes such diverse topics as secure software development, malware, software reverse en- gineering, and operating systems. Although this book is focused on practical issues, I've tried to cover enough of the fundamental principles so that you will be prepared for further study in the field. In addition, I've strived to minimize the background re- quirements as much as possible.
In particular, the mathematical formalism has been kept to a bare minimum the Appendix contains a review of all necessary math topics. Despite this self-imposed limitation, I believe this book contains more substantive cryptography than most security books out there. The required computer science background is also minimal—an in- troductory computer organization course or comparable experience is more than sufficient.
Some programming experience is assumed and a rudimentary knowledge of assembly language would be helpful in a couple of sections, but it's not mandatory. Networking basics arise in a few sections. The Appendix contains a brief overview of networking that provides more than sufficient background material. If you are an information technology professional who's trying to learn more about security, I would suggest that you read the entire book.
However, if you want to avoid the material that's most likely to slow you down and is not critical to the overall flow of the book, you can safely skip Section 4. If you are teaching a security class, you need to realize that this book has more material than can be covered in a one-semester course. The schedule that I generally follow in my undergraduate security class appears in Table 1. This schedule allows ample time to cover a few of the optional topics.
If the syllabus in Table 1 is too busy, you could cut Section 8.
Of course, many other variations on the syllabus are possible. Introduction 2. Classic Cryptography 3. Symmetric Key Crypto 4. Public Key Crypto 5. Advanced Cryptanalysis 7. Authentication 8. Authorization 9. Authentication Protocols Real-World Protocols Software Flaws and Malware Insecurity in Software Suggested Syllabus Security is not a spectator sport—doing a large number of homework problems is essential to learning the material in this book.
Many topics are fleshed out in the problems and additional topics are often introduced. The bottom line is that the more problems you solve, the more you'll learn.
A security course based on this book is an ideal venue for individual or group projects. Chapter 6 is a good source for crypto projects, while the annotated bibliography provides a starting point to search for additional project topics. In addition, many homework problems lend themselves well to class discussions or in-class assignments see, for example, Problem 19 in Chapter 10 or Problem 33 in Chapter The textbook website is at http: If I were teaching this class for the first time, I would particularly appreciate the PowerPoint slides, which have been thoroughly "battle tested" and improved over several iterations.
In addi- tion, a solutions manual is available to instructors sorry, students from the publisher. It is also worth noting how the Appendices fit in. Even if students have a solid foundation in networking, it's probably worthwhile to review this material, since networking terminology is not always consistent and the focus here is on security.
The Math Essentials of Appendix A-2 are assumed in various places throughout the text. Elementary modular arithmetic Appendix A I've found that the vast majority of my students need to brush up on modular arithmetic basics. It only takes about 20 to 30 minutes of class time to cover the material on modular arithmetic and that will be time well spent prior to diving into public key cryptography.
Trust me. Permutations, which are briefly discussed in Appendix A The elementary linear algebra in Appendix A- 2. Just as any large and complex piece of software must have bugs, this book inevitably has errors. I would like to hear about any errors—large or small— that you find.
I will maintain a reasonably up-to-date errata on the textbook website. Also, don't hesitate to provide any suggestions you might have for future editions of this book.
What's New for the Second Edition? Cats right themseJves; books don't. In addition to the new- and-improved homework problems, new topics have been added, some new background material has been included, virtually all of the existing material has been updated and clarified, and all known errors have been corrected. Examples of new topics include a practical RSA timing attack, a discussion of botnets, and coverage of security certification. Examples of added background material include a section on the Enigma cipher and coverage of the classic "orange book" view of security.
Information security is a rapidly evolving field and there have been some significant changes since the first edition of this book was published in Nevertheless, the basic structure of the book remains intact. I believe the organization and list of topics has held up well over the past five years.
Consequently, the changes to the content for this second edition are more evolutionary than revolutionary. About The Author I've got nearly 20 years of experience in information security, including ex- tensive work in industry and government. My work experience includes more than seven years at the National Security Agency followed by two years at a Silicon Valley startup company.
In industry I helped design and develop a digital rights management security product.
This real-world work was sandwiched between academic jobs. While in academia, my research interests have included a wide variety of security topics. When I returned to academia in , it seemed to me that none of the available security textbooks had much connection with the real world.
I felt that I could write an information security book that would fill this gap, while also containing information that would be useful to working IT professionals. Based on the feedback I've received, the first edition was apparently a success. I believe that this second edition will prove even more valuable in its dual role as a textbook and as a resource for working professionals, but then I'm biased. I can say that many of my former students who are now at leading Silicon Valley technology companies tell me that the information they learned in my courses has been useful to them.
And I certainly wish that a book like this had been available when I worked in industry, since my colleagues and I would have benefitted from it. I do have a life outside of information security.
We enjoy the outdoors, with regular local trips involving such activities as bicycling, hiking, camping, and fishing. I also spend way too much time working on my fixer-upper house in the Santa Cruz mountains. This page intentionally left blank Acknowledgments My work in information security began when I was in graduate school.
I want to thank my thesis advisor, Clyde F. Martin, for introducing me to this fascinating subject. In my seven years at NSA, I learned more about security than I could have learned in a lifetime anywhere else. From my time in industry, I want to thank Joe Pasqua and Paul Clarke for giving me the chance to work on a fascinating and challenging project. The following San Jose State University students helped greatly with the first edition: Richard Low, a colleague here at SJSU, provided helpful feedback on an early version of the manuscript.
David Blockus God rest his soul deserves special mention for providing detailed comments on each chapter at a partic- ularly critical juncture in the writing of the first edition. For this second edition, many of my SJSU masters students "volunteered" to serve as proofreaders.
The following students all contributed their time and energy to correct errors in the manuscript: In addition, Piyush Upadhyay found several errors in the first edition. Many other people made helpful comments and suggestions. Here, I would like to specifically thank Bob Harris Penn State University for the visual crypto example and exercise, and a very special thanks goes to John Trono Saint Michael's College for his many detailed comments and questions.
Undoubtedly, errors remain. Of course, all remaining flaws are my re- sponsibility alone. Chapter 1 Introduction "Begin at the beginning, " the King said, very gravely, "and go on till you come to the end: Occasionally we'll require additional good guys, such as Charlie and Dave. Alice Bob Figure 1. Alice and Bob. Trudy, pictured in Figure 1. Some authors employ a team of bad guys where the name implies the particular nefarious activity. In this usage, Trudy is an "intruder" and Eve is an "eavesdropper" and so on.
To simplify things, we'll use Trudy as our all-purpose bad guy. After all, Trudy is typically a female name, so why two bad guys instead of one bad girl? One possible reason is that, occasionally, we need two bad guys, so it's convenient to have both Tweedledee and Tweedledum available. Another plausible 1 Alice, Bob, Trudy, and the rest of the gang need not be humans. For example, one of many possible scenarios would have Alice as a laptop, Bob a server, and Trudy a human.
What are Alice's information security con- cerns? If Bob is Alice's customer, what are his information security con- cerns? Are Bob's concerns the same as Alice's? If we look at AOB from Trudy's perspective, what security vulnerabilities might we see? First, let's consider the traditional triumvirate of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, or CIA,3 in the context of Alice's Bank.
Then we'll point out some of the many other possible security concerns. AOB probably wouldn't care much about the confidentiality of the informa- tion it deals with, except for the fact that its customers certainly do. For example, Bob doesn't want Trudy to know how much he has in his savings account.
Alice's Bank would also face legal problems if it failed to protect the confidentiality of such information. Integrity deals with preventing, or at least detecting, unauthorized "writ- ing" i. Alice's Bank must protect the integrity of account information to prevent Trudy from, say, increasing the balance in her account or changing the balance in Bob's account. Note that confidentiality and in- tegrity are not the same thing. For example, even if Trudy cannot read the data, she might be able to modify this unreadable data, which, if undetected, explanation is that you never know who might be acting as "Trudy.
In this case, Trudy might not know what changes she had made to the data since she can't read it , but she might not care— sometimes just causing trouble is good enough. Denial of service, or DoS, attacks are a relatively recent concern. Such attacks try to reduce access to information. As a result of the rise in DoS attacks, data availability has become a fundamental issue in information secu- rity. Availability is an issue for both Alice's Bank and Bob—if AOB's website is unavailable, then Alice can't make money from customer transactions and Bob can't get his business done.
Bob might then take his business elsewhere. If Trudy has a grudge against Alice, or if she just wants to be malicious, she might attempt a denial of service attack on Alice's Online Bank.
Beginning at the beginning, consider the situation when customer Bob logs on to his computer. How does Bob's computer de- termine that "Bob" is really Bob and not Trudy? Although these two authentication problems appear to be similar on the surface, under the covers they are actually completely different. Authentication on a standalone computer typically requires that Bob's password be verified.
To do so securely, some clever techniques from the field of cryptography are required. On the other hand, authentication over a network is open to many kinds of attacks that are not usually relevant on a standalone computer. Potentially, the messages sent over a network can be viewed by Trudy.
To make matters worse, Trudy might be able to intercept messages, alter messages, and insert messages of her own making. Since information security people are professional paranoids,4 we always assume the worst.
In any case, authentication over a network requires careful attention to protocol, that is, the composition and ordering of the exchanged messages. Cryptography also has an important role to play in security protocols. Once Bob has been authenticated by Alice's Bank, then Alice must en- force restrictions on Bob's actions. For example, Bob can't look at Charlie's account balance or install new accounting software on the AOB system. How- ever, Sam, the AOB system administrator, can install new accounting soft- ware.
Enforcing such restrictions goes by the name of authorization. Note that authorization places restrictions on the actions of authenticated users. All of the information security mechanisms discussed so far are imple- mented in software.
And, if you think about it, other than the hardware, what isn't software in a modern computing system? Today, software systems tend to be large, complex, and rife with bugs. A software bug is not just an annoyance, it is a potential security issue, since it may cause the system to misbehave.
Of course, Trudy loves misbehavior. What software flaws are security issues, and how are they exploited? How can AOB be sure that its software is behaving correctly? How can AOB's software developers reduce or, ideally, eliminate security flaws in their soft- ware? We'll examine these software development related questions and much more in Chapter Although bugs can and do give rise to security flaws, these problems are created unintentionally by well-meaning developers.
On the other hand, some software is written with the intent of doing evil. Examples of such malicious software, or malware, includes the all-too-familiar computer viruses and worms that plague the Internet today.
How do these nasty beasts do what they do, and what can Alice's Online Bank do to limit their damage? What can Trudy do to increase the nastiness of such pests? We'll also consider these and related questions in Chapter Of course, Bob has many software concerns, too. For example, when Bob enters his password on his computer, how does he know that his password has not been captured and sent to Trudy?
If Bob conducts a transaction at www. That is, how can Bob be confident that his software is behaving as it should, instead of as Trudy would like it to behave? We'll consider these questions as well. When discussing software and security, we'll need to consider operating system, or OS, topics. Operating systems are themselves large and complex pieces of software and OSs are responsible for enforcing much of the security in any system.
So, some basic knowledge of OSs is necessary to fully appre- ciate the challenges of information security. We'll also briefly consider the concept of a trusted operating system, that is, an operating system that we can actually have reasonable confidence is doing the right thing. Your humble author would humbly5 add a fourth category: Your fearless author believes this is appropriate, nay essential, for an intro- ductory course, since the strengths, weaknesses, and inherent limitations of the mechanisms directly affect all other aspects of security.
In other words, without a reasonable understanding of the mechanisms, it is not possible to have an informed discussion of other security issues. The material in this book is divided into four major parts. The first part deals with cryptography, while the next part covers access control. Part III is on protocols, while the final part deals with the vast and relatively ill- defined topic of software.
Hopefully, the previous discussion of Alice's Online Bank6 has convinced you that these major topics are all relevant to real-world information security. In the remainder of this chapter, we'll give a quick preview of each of these four major topics. Then the chapter concludes with a summary followed by some lovely homework problems. Cryptography has many uses, including providing confidentiality and in- tegrity, among other vital information security functions.
We'll discuss cryp- tography in detail, since this is essential background for any sensible discus- sion of information security. We'll begin our coverage of cryptography with a look at a handful of classic cipher systems.
In addition to their obvious historic and entertainment value, these classic ciphers illustrate the fundamental principles that are employed in modern digital cipher systems, but in a more user-friendly format.
With this background, we'll be prepared to study modern cryptography. Symmetric key cryptography and public key cryptography both play major roles in information security, and we'll spend an entire chapter on each.
We'll then turn our attention to hash functions, which are another fundamental se- curity tool.