8 जनवरी Hindi Sahitya ka Itihas PDF (हिंदी साहित्य का इतिहास) के बारे में आप सभी प्रतियोगी Students जानते ही होगे, हिंदी. Evolution of Hindi literature; a historical survey. Hindi Sahitya Aur Samvedana Ka Vikas. By Ram Swaroop Chaturvedi. Hindi Sahitya Ka Adikal - Hazari Prasad Dwivedi - Free download as PDF File . pdf) or read online for free. हिंदी Hindi Sahitya Ka Sankshipta Sugam Itihas.
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During the later part of this period and early Bhakti Kala, many saint-poets like Ramanand and Gorakhnath became famous. The earliest form of Hindi can also be seen in some of Vidyapati 's Maithili works. The medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and composition of long, epic poems.
Sadhukaddi was also a language commonly used, especially by Kabir in his poetry and dohas. The Bhakti period also marked great theoretical development in poetry forms chiefly from a mixture of older forms of poetry. This was also the age when Poetry was characterised under the various Rasas.
Bhakti poetry had two schools — the Nirguna school the believers of a formless God or an abstract name and the Saguna school the believers of a God with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu's incarnations. Kabir and Guru Nanak belong to the Nirguna school, and their philosophy was greatly influenced by the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Sankaracharya. The Saguna school was represented by mainly Vaishnava poets like Surdas , Tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the likes of Madhavacharya etc.
This school was chiefly Vaishnava in orientation as in seen in the main compositions like Ramacharitamanas , Sur Saravali , Sur Sagar extoling Rama and Krishna. This was also the age of tremendous integration between the Hindu and the Islamic elements in the Arts with the advent of many Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana who was a court poet to Mughal emperor Akbar and was a great devotee of Krishna. The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also tremendously secular in nature and its propounders like Kabir and Guru Nanak had a large number of followers irrespective of caste or religion.
In the Ritikavya or Ritismagra Kavya period, the erotic element became predominant in the Hindi literature. This era is called Riti meaning 'procedure' because it was the age when poetic figures and theory were developed to the fullest.
But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional aspects of poetry—the main characteristic of the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the poetry became less important. Although most Reeti works were outwordly related to Krishna Bhakti , their emphasis had changed from total devotion to the supreme being to the Shringar or erotic aspects of Krishna's life—his Leela, his pranks with the Gopis in Braj , and the description of the physical beauty of Krishna and Radha , Krishna's Consort.
The poetry of Bihari , and Ghananand Das fit this bill. The most well known book from this age is the Bihari Satsai of Bihari , a collection of Dohas couplets , dealing with Bhakti devotion , Neeti Moral policies and Shringar love.
Both books came out in Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in , is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The College president J. Gilchrist hired professors to write books in Hindustani. The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand , who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement.
Before Premchand, the Hindi literature revolved around fairy or magical tales, entertaining stories and religious themes.
Premchand's novels have been translated into many other languages. Gocharya ji authored Krishna Cahrit Manas in the poetic form describing about the full life of Lord Krishna from birth to Nirvana. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , who played a major role in establishing the modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of the Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. He encouraged poetry in Hindi dedicated to nationalism and social reform.
Dwivedi became the editor of Saraswati in , the first Hindi monthly magazine of India, which was established in One of the most prominent poems of the period was Maithili Sharan Gupt 's Bharat-bharati , which evokes the past glory of India.
Shridhar Prathak 's Bharatgit is another renowned poem of the period. Some scholars have labelled much of the poetry of this period as "versified propaganda". According to Lucy Rosenstein: Earnestly concerned with social issues and moral values, it is puritanical poetry in which aesthetic considerations are secondary.
Imagination, originality, poetic sensibility and expression are wanting, the metre is restrictive, the idiom clumsy. However, she also adds that the inelegance is a typical feature of a "young" poetry, as she considers Modern Hindi. Without a poetic tradition in modern Hindi, poets often modeled their forms on Braj, and later on Sanskrit, Urdu, Bengali and English forms, often ill-suited to Hindi.
The subjects of the poems tended to be communal rather than personal. Characters were often presented not as individuals but as social types. In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chhayavaad shadowism and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi.
Poet Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' was another great poet with some Chayavaadi element in his poetry although he wrote in other genres as well. This period of Neo-romanticism , represents the adolescence of Hindi Poetry. It is marked by beauty of expression and flow of intense emotion. The four representative poets of this era represent the best in Hindi Poetry. A unique feature of this period is the emotional and sometimes active attachment of poets with national freedom struggle, their effort to understand and imbibe the vast spirit of a magnificent ancient culture and their towering genius which grossly overshadowed all the literary 'talked abouts' of next seven decades.
Other important genres of Adhunik Sahitya Modernism are: Among the numerous schools of poetry which sprang up in the fifties of this century was Nakenwad , a school deriving its nomenclature from the first letters of the names of its three pioneers — Nalin Vilochan Sharma , Kesari Kumar , and Naresh Mehta all poets of note in their own right.
Hindi has a rich legacy of poetry. There are several genres of Kavita based on Ras, Chhand and Alankar e. It is particularly famous due to Hindi kavi sammelans. Bal Kavita is children's rhymes in Hindi. Many attempts have been made to document Hindi poetry. Some of the most comprehensive online collections for Hindi poetry are Kavitakosh and Geeta-Kavita.
The most classy content that has created new audiences who were not looking for Hindi poetry or Hindi content is Hindi Kavita. This movement started in by Manish Gupta has generated an entirely new market and brought many projects to the fore.
Many award-winning poets, scholars, journalists and celebrities from Film, Television and Theatre have come forward to support the cause and take it further. The rhetoric of satire is called Vyangya in Hindi. Vyangya writings includes the essence of sarcasm and humour. Some of the better known writers in this genre are, Harishankar Parsai Hindi: He was a noted satirist and humorist of modern Hindi literature and is known for his simple and direct style.
Rahul Sankrityayan was one of the greatest travelled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He is known as the "Father of Hindi Travel literature ". Baba Nagarjun was a major Hindi and Maithili poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues, and was known as " Janakavi- the People's Poet ". The pioneer of Hindi theatre as well as playwrighting, Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote Satya Harishchandra , Bharat Durdasha and Andher Nagari , in the late 19th century, Jaishankar Prasad became the next big figure in Hindi playwriting with plays like Skanda Gupta , Chandragupta and Dhruvswamini As the Independence struggle was gathering steam playwrights broaching issues of nationalism and subversive ideas against the British, yet to dodge censorship they adapted themes from mythology, history and legend and used them as vehicle for political messages, a trend that continues to date, though now it was employed to bring out social, personal and psychological issues rather than clearly political, though street theatre broke this trend in coming decades in post-independence era, like IPTA-inspired, Naya Theatre of Habib Tanvir did in the s—90s, Jana Natya Manch of Safdar Hashmi did in the s—80s.
Post-independence the emerging republic threw up new issues for playwrights to tackle and express, and Hindi playwriting showed greater brevity and symbolism, but it was not as prolific as in case with Hindi poetry or fiction. Kuber Nath Rai is one of the writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the form of essay-writing.
Born in Kashmir, he came to Calcutta and started Bharat Mitra in In , he began another weekly magazine- Saar Sudhanidhi but it closed down in that same year.
Ucchit Vakta focused on spreading the truth about the British Raj and fighting for justice. It became very popular for many years. Mishra underwent a lot of difficulties trying to bring out a critical publication at the time of the British Raj.
At times he was the editor, writer and also sold the paper himself. He was an inspiration for many journalists, particularly Bal Mukund Gupta.
For some time he was principal of Allahabad University. He began his journalist career in Abhyudaya, a journal by Padmakant Malviya. He then joined Sangam, edited by Ilachand Joshi and then became editor of Dharmayug. Thanks to Bharati, this journal became very popular. During the war, Bharati reported from the frontlines of the battle.