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General Botany covers certain aspects of general botany, such as morphology, anatomy, and histology. The book discusses the. General Botany covers certain aspects of general botany, such as morphology, anatomy, and histology. The book discusses the molecular constitution of plants; . THE large variety of text-books of botany which have been published during the last few years, in Great Britain and in America, render it difficult for any addition.

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General Botany Book

of this textbook the country over. With the suggestions so received in mind, the book has undergone what proved to be an extensive rewriting. While the general . very few botany books which are trying to do the same. botany the scientific study of plants and plant-like organisms general characters. A Textbook Of General Botany. bySmith,Gilbert M. Publication date Topics NATURAL SCIENCES, Botany, General botany. PublisherThe Macmillan.

Traditionally, botanists studied all organisms that were not generally regarded as animal. However, advances in our knowledge about the myriad forms of life, especially microbes viruses and bacteria , have led to spinning off from Botany the specialized field called Microbiology. Still, the microbes are usually covered in introductory Botany courses, although their status as neither animal nor plant is firmly established. Plants are living entities, and material presented within Biology will have relevance here, most particularly at the cellular and subcellular levels of organization Chapter 2. Both plants and animals deal with the same problems of maintaining life on planet Earth — their approaches seem quite different, but the end result is the same: continued existence in an organized state, as part of a universe whose tendency is towards greater disorganization. Back on Earth, however, it is a fact that microbes, plants, and animals comprise a very interdependent system. We divide them apart, because our minds work best that way. We categorize and learn common features or properties of the categories. This approach is neither right nor wrong, but is clearly efficient for our minds.

Botany - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

The book discusses the molecular constitution of plants; the structural constitution of the protoplasm, the cell, and the cytoplasm; and the differentiation of the cell. The text also describes the types of organization in plants; the internal and external structure of the stem, the leaf, and the root; and water and salt balance, with regard to the translocation of materials. The energy procurement and the synthetic processes in autotrophic plants; the respiration and energy transformations; and nitrogen metabolism are also considered.

The book further tackles heterotrophy; reproduction; heredity; development; and the movement of plants. Botanists, cytologists, plant physiologists, and students taking related courses will find the text invaluable. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.

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Plant Biology, Botany Books for College & University Students' Textbook

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Botany Books

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De Materia Medica was widely read for more than 1, years. These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens", often associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use.

They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject.

Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much later to northern Europe; the first in England was the University of Oxford Botanic Garden in Throughout this period, botany remained firmly subordinate to medicine. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus — authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium in Naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi — was considered the father of natural history, which included the study of plants.

In , using an early microscope, Polymath Robert Hooke discovered cells , a term he coined, in cork , and a short time later in living plant tissue.

General Botany

During the 18th century, systems of plant identification were developed comparable to dichotomous keys , where unidentified plants are placed into taxonomic groups e. The choice and sequence of the characters may be artificial in keys designed purely for identification diagnostic keys or more closely related to the natural or phyletic order of the taxa in synoptic keys. This established a standardised binomial or two-part naming scheme where the first name represented the genus and the second identified the species within the genus.

The 24th group, Cryptogamia, included all plants with concealed reproductive parts, mosses, liverworts, ferns, algae and fungi. Adanson , de Jussieu , and Candolle all proposed various alternative natural systems of classification that grouped plants using a wider range of shared characters and were widely followed.

The Candollean system reflected his ideas of the progression of morphological complexity and the later classification by Bentham and Hooker , which was influential until the midth century, was influenced by Candolle's approach. Darwin 's publication of the Origin of Species in and his concept of common descent required modifications to the Candollean system to reflect evolutionary relationships as distinct from mere morphological similarity.

Botany uses Latin names for identification, here, the specific name glauca means blue. Late modern botany[ edit ] Micropropagation of transgenic plants Building upon the gene-chromosome theory of heredity that originated with Gregor Mendel — , August Weismann — proved that inheritance only takes place through gametes.

No other cells can pass on inherited characters.

Her books Plant Anatomy and Anatomy of Seed Plants have been key plant structural biology texts for more than half a century. The concept that the composition of plant communities such as temperate broadleaf forest changes by a process of ecological succession was developed by Henry Chandler Cowles , Arthur Tansley and Frederic Clements. Clements is credited with the idea of climax vegetation as the most complex vegetation that an environment can support and Tansley introduced the concept of ecosystems to biology.

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