This book is about fundamental concepts that any chemistry student should not only be aware of but proficient at. Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fourth Edition covers the fundamentals of chemistry. The book describes the formation of ionic and covalent bonds; the Lewis. Goldberg • Fundamentals of Chemistry, Fifth Edition. Front Matter. 1. Preface. 1 . back to previous sections in the book or to. Appendix 1 and.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . is book is mainly about Physical Chemistry and explains the basic concepts e fundamental properties of matter underlie all of Science and. This book is mainly about Physical Chemistry and explains the basic concepts of gases, The fundamental properties of matter underlie all of Science and.
Not you? Click here to reset. After entering your email address, a confirmation email will be sent to your inbox. Please approve this email to receive our weekly eBook update.
We will not share your personal information with any third party. Start your free month Start your free month Or download the eBook for only Description This book is about fundamental concepts that any chemistry student should not only be aware of but proficient at. This was easy to find and to use. Again, I would like to see more integration of the cooking and the chemistry content. Interface rating: 5 My class had no difficulties navigating or understanding the figures and content that we used in class.
Grammatical Errors I did not find any grammatical errors.
Cultural Relevance rating: 4 The text was not insensitive or offensive. Cooking examples of a variety of ethnicity and backgrounds could make the text even more relevant to students.
The particles that make up matter have rest mass as well — not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon.
Matter can be a pure chemical substance or a mixture of substances. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space occupied by an electron cloud. The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons together called nucleons , while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus.
In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons.
The nucleus is dense; the mass of a nucleon is approximately 1, times that of an electron, yet the radius of an atom is about 10, times that of its nucleus. Element Main article: Chemical element A chemical element is a pure substance which is composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z.
The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same atomic number, they may not necessarily have the same mass number; atoms of an element which have different mass numbers are known as isotopes. For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon , but atoms of carbon may have mass numbers of 12 or The periodic table is arranged in groups , or columns, and periods , or rows.
The periodic table is useful in identifying periodic trends. The properties of a compound bear little similarity to those of its elements.
Organic compounds are named according to the organic nomenclature system. When a compound has more than one component, then they are divided into two classes, the electropositive and the electronegative components. In this scheme each chemical substance is identifiable by a number known as its CAS registry number.
A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances.
However, this definition only works well for substances that are composed of molecules, which is not true of many substances see below.
Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds , such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs. Thus, molecules exist as electrically neutral units, unlike ions.
When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. However, the discrete and separate nature of the molecular concept usually requires that molecular ions be present only in well-separated form, such as a directed beam in a vacuum in a mass spectrometer. Charged polyatomic collections residing in solids for example, common sulfate or nitrate ions are generally not considered "molecules" in chemistry.
Some molecules contain one or more unpaired electrons, creating radicals. Most radicals are comparatively reactive, but some, such as nitric oxide NO can be stable.
A 2-D skeletal model of a benzene molecule C6H6 The "inert" or noble gas elements helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon and radon are composed of lone atoms as their smallest discrete unit, but the other isolated chemical elements consist of either molecules or networks of atoms bonded to each other in some way. Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline, and the various pharmaceuticals.
However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without molecules. These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids , are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se. Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance.
Examples of such substances are mineral salts such as table salt , solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite.