Figuring: The Joy of Numbers. byShakuntala Devi. Publication date Topics A, ПЕ. Collectionopensource. LanguageEnglish. n/a. Shakuntala Devi The Book of Numbers PDF Shakuntala Devi, Book Of Numbers, . Funny Silly and Dumb Trivia Questions With Answers - Free Printable Funny. Shakuntala Devi's Book of Numbers Everything You Always Wanted to Know Shakuntala Devi firmly believes that mathematics can be great fun for everybody.

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THE NUMBER PUZZLE There are two numbers with the difference of 3 . other than the world-renowned mathematical prodigy, Shakuntala Devi. In the course of conversation she said, 'Do you know some- thing funny?. View The Book of maroc-evasion.info from CSC 51 at Sardar Patel University. Shakuntala Devi's Book of Numbers Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Shakuntala Devi firmly believes that mathematics can be great fun for everybody. All the nine digits are arranged here so as to form four square numbers: 9,81, , Go from preparing a webinar to presenting in fewer steps – and have a lot of fun along the way. Start Now Is there a book in the library of puzzles by Shakuntala Devi? Views . Puzzles To Puzzle You Shakuntala maroc-evasion.info

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Additive Theory of Numbers: Partitions b. The waring problem and related problems 72 c. The Goldbach problem V. Diophontine Approximation: Geometry of Numbers b. Diophontine Approximation VJ. Generalisations of Arithmetic: Algebraic Numbers b.

Ideals c. Dyadic Notation is another name for Binary Notation. In the margin of his copy of 'Diophantus' Fermat wrote: I have found a truly wonderful proof which this margin is too small to contain'. Unfortunately, he died soon after, and this theory has never been proved, though almost every great mathematician for the last three centuries has attempted a proof.

A digital computer consists of three parts: Store 2. Executive Unit 3. Control The store is a store of information and memory. The executive unit is a part which carries out the various individual operations involved in a calculation. And it is the duty of the Control that the instructions fed to the machine are obeyed correctly and in the proper order.

Associative Law means that the terms of an expression means connected by plus or minus signs can be grouped in any manner. Here the meaning is that the factors of a product can be grouped in anyway we please. The terms or parts of an expression wmch are connected by plus or minus signs can be written in any order is the Commutative Law.

The factors of any product may be taken in any order—this is the Commutative Law of Multiplication. That addition and subtraction can be performed in any order. That the product of a Compound expression and a factor is the algebraical sum of the partial products of each term of the compound expression and the factor.

That the final index of a letter occuring more than once in a product is the sum of the indices of that letter. It cannot be done. Normal arithmetical operations cannot be carried out with per cent numbers. For example when you say 'Sixty per cent of the people who attended the function were women'.

What you are actually doing is you are comparing with the total number of people who attended the function. Measurement numbers are very much like the ordinary numbers in arithmetic. They can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided. However 77 whilejdoing these operations one has to convert all measurement numbers into the same units.

For example we cannot add 4 ft. We have to convert so that both measurements are either in foot units or inch units. It was suggested once. And indeed it would be a more practical system. But every country in the world uses the present system and no one wants a change. To read the body temperature we have standard thermometers which are marked with numerical temperature scales agreed upon around the world. There are two temperature scales Fahrenheit and Centigrade. The first modern temperature scale is Fahrenheit scale.

This was devised in by a scientist named Gabriel Robert Fahrenheit. Fahrenhiet temperature scales is in common use for weather reports, medical thermometers and cook books.

However this scale was improved by Anders Celsius, a Swedish Astronomer and his new temperature scale has been adopted in many countries of the world.

However, most English speaking countries have continued to use the Fahrenheit scale and refer to the Celsius scale as Centigrade meaning units temperature scale. The Centigrade temperature unit has been set up using two reference temperatures: Yes, there is a way. The two temperature scales are connected by a simple algebraic equation: Where C 9 stands for the Centigrade temperature and F is theequivalent of Fahrenheit temperature.

Lumber is sold according to a special measure of volume called the board foot. A letter which has fixed value is a Literal Coefficient. Usually the letters at the beginning of the alphabet are used for this purpose. For example to save time, when you want to write down each time in a sum or if its value although fixed is unknown then this number may be called a, b, c, or any other letter of the alphabet.

Mensuration is the skill of measuring the length of lines, areas of surfaces, and volumes of solids from simple data of lines and angles. Monomial is an expression just one term such as 3, 4, 6x etc. No one knows the exact reason, though some one gave me a flimsy one that it being the fifth prime number it was unlucky. However quite frankly I think it is really strange and unjustified. Many buildings in Europe and USA have no 13th floors, hotels have no rooms numbered 13, many people refuse to take car numbers that contains number 13, and people often refuse to start a journey or a new business on the 13th day of the month.

In my own case, however, 13 has been a very lucky number. Jn ancient Greece the 13 day of the month was considered unlucky for sowing but lucky for reaping.

Ninth power of the ninth power of nine is the largest in the world of numbers that can be expressed with just 3 digits. No one has been able to compute this yet. The very task is staggering to the mind The answer to this number will contain million digits. And to read it normally it would take more than a year. To write down the answer, you would require miles of paper. Tables containing the primes upto 10, have been prepared.

The largest known prime is: A micron is the millionth of a metre and there are about microns in an inch. One Angstron unit equals one ten thousand millionth of a metre. One micron equals 10, times the length of an Angstron Unit. The great Indian Mathematician, was sick in the hospital, Prof. Hardy, his tutor paid him a visit. Hardy told Ramanujan that he rode a taxi to the hospital with a very unlucky number, Ramanujan's face lit up with a smile and he said that it was not an unlucky number at all, but a very interesting number, the only number that can 84 be represented as the sum of two different cubes in two different ways.

Yes, even from olden days some people believe that odd numbers are lucky.

Here is a stanza from 'Lover, Rory O'More' written in Then Rory, the rogue, stole his arm round her neck, So soft and so white, without freckle or speck; And he look'd in her eyes, that were beaming with light, And he kissed her sweet lips—don't you think he was right?

When a number itself is greater than the sum of its factors, it is said to be an abundant number. It can also be called excessive number or redundant number. Ampere is the unit measure of electric current. The absolute ampere which is the legal standard of current since is the current in each of two long parallel wires which carry equal currents and for which there is a force of 2. However before One international ampere equals 0. Newton permeter is a unit force. A force of one newton is a force which will give an acceleration of one meler per second to a mass of one kilogram.

In this game two players draw articles from several piles, each player in turn taking as many as he pleases from any one pile. The player who draws the last article is the loser. If the numbers of article in each heap is expressed in the Binary scale, the game readily lends itself to mathematical analysis. There is one other way of playing this game. Three or more numbers in decimal system are written down, and two players move alternatively. Each player may reduce one and only one of the integers by any amount he wishes except zero.

The winner is the one who obtains all zeros. Annuity is the sum of money payable in a series of payment at regular intervals, under an annuity contract setting forth the amount of the annuity, its cost and the conditions under which it is to be paid. This contract is also known as the Annuity Policy when the annuity is a temporary one.

Pictogram is any figure showing numerical relations such as graphs. Poundal is a unit of force. The force which, acting on a mass of one pound for one second, will increase the velocity of the mass one foot per second is called a force of one Poundal. It is said to be the oldest mathematical book written about B.

It is written as 0N"0. The cardinal number of all real numbers is designated by C. This is a two person game, in which each of the players tosses a coin of like value and if the two coins show like faces, either both heads or both tails, the first player wins, but if they show unlike faces the second player wins. This is a process of multiplying whereby you drop a digit of the multiplier after each multiplication.

You only drop such digits which do not affect the degree of accuracy desired. If in a product you need only two decimal place accuracy, you only need to retain the third place throughout the multiplication.

Permutation is an ordered arrangement of all or part of a set of things. For example all possible permutations of the letters a, b and c are: Combination of a set of objects is any selection of one or more of the objects without regard to order. The number of combinations of 'n' things 'r' at a time is the number of sets that can be made up from the 'n' things, each set containing 'r' different things and no two sets containing exactly the same 'r' things.

Here is a quotation about Probability by Bishop Butler: For when we determine a thing to be probably true ,.

Radix is any number which is made the fundamental number or base of any system of numbers. For example, 10 is the Radix of the decimal system of numeration.

It can also be described as the base of a system of Logarithms. The Reciprocal literally means Complimentary, inverted or mutually interchangeable. However in arithmetic it is used to denote different kinds of mutual relations The reciprocal of a number is the number whose product with the given number is equal to 1.

For a fraction, the reciprocal is the fraction formed by interchanging the numerator and denominator in the given fraction. Literally translated it means 'rule of false position'. In Arithmetic it is the method of calculating an unknown by making an estimate and working from it and properties of the unknown to secure the value of the latter. The scale is a system of marks in a given order, at 92 known intervals. It is used in the aids used f o r measuring quantities like rulers and thermometers.

The mark that separates like the comma, full-stop, colon or a semicolon. The decimal point is also called a Separatrix sometimes. Sexagesimal means 'pertaining to the number sixty.

This is a number system using sixty for a base instead of ten.

A sequence within a sequence. For example b J. It is a number or quantity which divides another exactly. Surd is the root of a number which can only be found approximably. It can also be called a numerical expression containing an irrational number. It is sometimes used as a synonym of irrational number. Theory is the principles concerned with a certain concept, and the facts postulated and proved about it.

Vanishing fraction is a fraction which becomes zero in the end. Consisting or leading to one and only one result. The product of two integers are unique, but the square root or a cube root of an integer is not. Relating to a unit or units. This problem was solved by Hilbert in The problem, however, was first proposed by Waring, of showing that, for any integer n, there is an integer K n such that any integer can be represented as the sum of not more than K n numbers, each of which is an 'nth' power of an integer.

Any integer can be represented as the sum of not more than 4 squares, and as the sum of not more than 9 cubes. Zeno showed that the mathematical treatment of space and time required that they be broken up into infinite sets of points and instants.

A tortoise has a head start on Achilles equal distance from a to b and both start running. Achilles runs after the tortoise. Though Achilles runs faster than the tortoise, he would never catch up with the tortoise, since while Achilles goes from a to b, the tortoise goes from b to c, and Achilles goes from b to c the tortoise goes from c to d and so on.

This process never ending. Well, there is only one explanation to the fallacy—that motion is measured by space intervals per unit of time and not by numbers of points. Mnemonics are devices for memorizing bits of information by associating them with things that are easier to remember. The most common Mnemonic device for remembering a series of digits is a sentence or a rhyme in which the number of letters in each word corresponds to the digits in the desired order.

In the sentence 'May I have a large container of coffee? The number of letter in each word corresponds to the successive integers in the decimal expansion of re. Sir James Jeans came out with the following sentence, in which the value of it is contained upto 14 decimal places: How I want a drink, Alcoholic of course, after the heavy chapters involving Quantum Mechanics' 3 14 15 92 65 35 89 Adam C Orn of Chicago published in the Literary Digest of Chicago of the 20th January issue on page 83, the following poem that contains to 30 decimal places: Now I—even I, would celebrate In Rhymes unapt the great Immortal Syracusan rivalled never more, Who in his wonderous lore Passed on before, 97 Left men his guidance How to circles mensurate.

For a doctor the number 99 is very important, because when he listens to the chest of a patient through Stethoscope, he asks the patient to say repeatedly ninety nine. The normal resonance this vocalisation would cause is increased if the underlined lung has solidified or became pneumonic. In other words vocalisation of ninety nine helps the doctor to diagnose pneumonia at the bedside.

If you have ninetynine sounding louder than the normal in a particular area you know that the lung in that area has become solidified or pneumonic. Pneumonia is the commonest cause of ninety nine becoming louder in any area of the lung. In the 20th Century there are only seven years whose numbers are a mathematical oddity because their numbers signify a prime number.

The first one of its kind was the year The other six are ,, , , and About years. Scientists have worked it out, though approximately. Do you know how many hairs placed side by side would measure an inch? If an average adult has cubic inches blood, do you know how many red corpuscles are there in the body of an adult?

About corpuscles. The word 'Cipher', comes from the Arabic 'Sift' and our word zero is derived from this word.

Do you know approximately how high would all the corpuscles in an average adult's body be if they could be piled on top of one another without compression? About ,, feet. Approximately 19 years. He has computed more accurately by squaring pi, multiplying the result by 6, then dividing by 5 to get 3. Among their various accomplishments was a form of picture writing known as hieroglyphics.

Included in this, to satisfy their number requirements, was a set of numerical symbols. In the earliest stages' however the Hindu-Arabic system of number notation did not contain a symbol for zero. Without the zero the system was not of very much use. The earliest known use of the Hindu-Arabic zero occurs in an Indian inscription dated A. And the indisputable superiority of the HinduArabic system over all others is a consequence of introducing the zero concept and symbol. Furthermore, the sixteenth part of that distance shall be the right and lawful foot' The inch came to us from the Unica which in Roman parlance was the twelfth part of some whole.

Thus the inch is till today, the twelfth part of the foot. In this era Lord Buddha preached his spiritual message and also initiated a tradition in mathematics by his own work in arithmetic. It is stated in the Buddhist sacred book Lalitavistara that when Buddha was of the age to marry, he desired to marry Gopa. Gopa had over other suitors.

Therefore her father decided to hold an examination for all the suitors including Buddha, in order to select a worthy bridegroom for his daughter. The subjects of the examinations included Arithmetic, Music and Archery. Buddha easily vanquished all his rivals except the great mathematician Arjuna.

Buddha was matched against him and challenged tc demonstrate his scientific skill. In order to gain a victory over Arjuna, Buddha selected a very complicated operation in Arithmetic. He proceeded on to describe the number of 'Primary Atoms' which placed end to end, would form a line with length equal to the Ancient Hindu equivalent to a mile.

He recited 'seven Primary Atoms make a very minute grain of dust. Seven of these grains of dust whirled up by the wind. When he reached the length of a mile, all Jhe 7's listed by Buddha yielded a product of about 50 digits.

He was also faftious as a poet and a philosopher. Bhaskaracharya's Lilavati, a treatise on mathematics is an immortal book—considered to be the greatest contribution ever made to the science of mathematics by a Hindu. How the treatise of Bhaskaracharya Lilavati derived its name has an interesting story behind it! Lilavati, jn actual fact was the name of Bhaskaracharya's daughter. His only daughter. When she was born, two well-known astrologers had cast her horoscope.

They had predicted that the stars under which Lilavati was bora, were not favourable for her to lead a married life. And therefore they advised Bhaskaracharya hot to get his daughter married. This was a great shock to Bhaskaracharya, as Lilavati was his only daughter. Therefore he pleaded with the Astrologers to calculate at least one auspicious moment, when the stars would favour her marriage.

Four days the astrologers calculated and came out with the auspicious moment—one and only auspicious moment! On the date set for the wedding, the bridegroom's party arrived in the hall, in a procession, and Lilavati was seated in the embrace of her uncle, who was to give away the bride.

A screen was barring the first glimpse from her bridegroom. To determine the exact moment, when the ceremony could start, the astrologers and priests set an hour glass besides Lilavati. Lilavati leaned over and gazed at the floating cup from time to time, to see how near she was approaching the propitious moment.

After quite some time had past, one of the astrologers looked into the hour glass and cried 'Alas the propitious moment has come and gone'! He lifted the vessel from the water. No liquid h a d entered the vessel and therefore no liquid had flown through the cavity. As Lilavati sitting in the embrace of her uncle, in her anxiety, had bent several times over the cup, a pearl had dropped from her ornaments and blocked the opening through which the fluid should have passed.

And now the auspicious hour had gone unnoticed and it was forever too late! To console the unhappy Lilavati, to whom normal pleasures of married life was denied forever, Bhaskaracharya, a man of great wisdom promised to work upon a book in mathematics and name it after her! Through years of labouring he created the book that has brought immortal fame to Lilavati. And the world is richer by the great work! The following is a well-known problem from Lilavati: One-third of the pearls fell to the ground, one-fifth stayed on the couch, one-sixth was found by the girl, and one-tenth recovered by her lover; six pearls remained on the string.

Say of how many pearls the necklace was composed. Thus the secret coded Sutras in mathematics and other allied scientific literature took shape. While it was helpful in making the study of the various sciences simpler, precise and more standardised, it was impossible for even the most learned scholars to interpret the literature—unless someone decodified the sutras.

While the Brahmins could protect the treasure of their knowledge from others, knowledge got locked in the hands of a few experts who possessed the keys for decodification. Thus various valuable science, art and literature remained miles away from the common man. The following is a hymn, an example of codified knowledge in mathematics: And it would be very difficult for one to imagine the hidden meaning in it. But when decodified, it gives the value of Pi it to 30 places of decimals.

He was emotionally attached to numbers. They were more just symbols for him. He saw life in them. He -often expressed his feeling for numbers in poetic fashion. He saw in the cardinal integers 'Images of Creativeness'.

He invested the numbers with various properties. This is the way he explained them: Stood apart as the source of all numbers and represented reason. For women FOUR: Stood for justice, since it is the product ofequals. Represented marriage, since it is formed by the union of two and three. Euclid founded a School in Alexandria. He also taught in his own school. The textbook he wrote on mathematics 'Elements' became a great asset in the world of mathematics.

There is an interesting story. King Ptolemy once asked him if there is a short cut to Geometry than that of the elements. Euclid replied, 'There is no royal road to Geometry'. Another interesting story concerns him and his pupils. After learning the very first proposition in Geometry, the pupil asked him what will he gain by learning these things.

Euclid called his slave and said ''Give him three pence since he must need make gains by what he learns'. Euclid's great work 'Elements' contains 13 volumes and his textbook has remained in use almost unchanged for more than years. Her special work in mathematics includes commentaries on the work of Diophantes, particularly Diophontine Algebra.

She became the head of the Neoplatonic School in Alexandria. The lectures she delivered in the capacity of the Head of the Alexandria School attracted distinguished men from all over the continent. Unfortunately her glorious life came to an unhappy ending. A group of fanatical mob of anti-pagans attacked and brutally slashed her to death with oystershells and burnt her piecemeal.

All her scientific writings were lost. But we carry in us a certain fear of numbers and are never confident about using them. Shakuntala Devi, the internationally famous Mathematical wizard, makes it easy for us- and interesting. This book contains all we always wanted to know about numbers but was difficult to understand, and which was nowhere available.

Divided into three parts, the first will tell you everything about numbers, the second some Anecdotes related with numbers and mathematicians, and the third a few important tables that will always help you. Shakuntala Devi popularly known as "the human computer. She took only fifty seconds to calculate the twenty-third root of a digit number. To verify her answer, a Computer in Washington programmed with over 13, instructions took ten seconds longer. Shakuntala Devi firmly believes that Mathematics can be great fun for everybody.

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Figuring the Joy of Numbers. Puzzles to Puzzle You. Awaken the Math Genuis in Your Child. Awaken the Genius in Your Child.

General Formula for Multiplication Multiplying numbers near multiples of different bases Cube Roots Base Division Multiplication Different Bases Power of Numbers Vedic Mathematics Cubing 3 Digit Numbers by the Ratio Method Squaring Made Easy Decimal Form of a Fraction - Part 1 Divisibility Tests The Psychology of Vedic Mathematics Calculating Powers Near a Base Number