View Table of Contents for Food Biochemistry and Food Processing The biochemistry of food is the foundation on which the research and. The biochemistry of food is the foundation on which the research and development advances in food biotechnology are built. In Food. Biochemistry of Processing Meat and Poultry Fidel Toldrá. Chemical and Biochemical Aspects of Color in. Muscle-Based Foods José Angel.
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Separation Technology in Food Processing Biochemistry of Vegetable Processing John Shi, Sophia Jun Xue, Xingqian Ye, Yueming Moustapha. ecology, botany, and even Earth science. Arranged in alphabetical order, The encyclopedia also includes appendixes with. Fourth Edition/Revision, (entitled Timeless Secrets of Health and Testing Your Mind/Body Response. 3 The Wonders Of O.
Nip, L. Siow, and P. Stanfield Seafood Enzymes M. Nielsen and H. Nielsen Methodology and Application in Fish Processing O. Vilhelmsson, S. Martin, B. Poli, and D. Part IV: Milk Chemistry and Biochemistry of Milk Constituents P. Fox and A. Kelly Biochemistry of Milk Processing A. Kelly and P. Part V: Fruits, Vegetables, and Cereals Biochemistry of Fruits G. Paliyath and D. Murr Biochemistry of Fruit Processing M. Oke and G. Paliyath Biochemistry of Vegetable Processing M.
Villamiel Verwimp, C. Courtin, and J. Part VI: Fermented Foods Dairy Products T. Boylston Bakery and Cereal Products J. Narvhus and T. Srhaug Biochemistry of Fermented Meat F. Biochemistry and Fermentation of Beer R. Part VII: Food Safety Odumeru Churchill, H. Lee, and J. Churchill Chapter 31 Email: Boylston Chapter 26 Phone: Maria Dolores del Castillo Chapter 4 Fax: Delcour Chapter 25 Fax: Hui Editor, Chapter 16 Phone: Box Email: Fox Chapter 19, 20 Phone: Kalamaki Chapter 12 Fax: Kelly Chapter 19, 20 Email: Kotzia Chapter 8 Samuel A.
HGKristinsson mail. Labrou Chapter 8 Email: Lyngby, Denmark Email: Lambrou aua. Leo M. Shyu Chapter 7 Fax: Simpson Associate Editor Phone: Stanfield Chapter 16 Fax: PStanfld PMT. Petros S. Tzen Chapter 7 Phone: Willaert vub. In the last 20 years, the role of food biochemistry enzymes in tomatoes, and food hydration has assumed increasing significance in all major dis- chemistry and biochemistry. In the five categories men- foods, raw meat and poultry, processed meat tioned, progress has advanced exponentially.
As and poultry, seafood enzymes, seafood pro- usual, dissemination of information on this progress cessing, proteomics and fish processing, milk is expressed in many media, both printed and elec- constituents, and milk processing.
The chemistry tronic. Books are available for almost every special- and biochemistry of fruits, vegetables, and ty area within the five disciplines mentioned, num- cereals are covered in raw fruits, fruits pro- bering in the hundreds.
As is well known, the two cessing, vegetable processing, rye flours, and areas of food biochemistry and food processing are nonenzymatic browning of cereal baking intimately related.
However, books covering a joint products. The chemistry and biochemistry of discussion of these topics are not so common. This fermented foods touch on four groups of book attempts to fill this gap, using the following products: The topic of microbiology and food safety covers Principles of food biochemistry, microbial safety and food processing, and Advances in selected areas of food biochemistry, emerging bacterial foodborne pathogens.
Food biochemistry and the processing of muscle foods and milk, This reference and classroom text is a result of the Food biochemistry and the processing of fruits, combined effort of more than 50 professionals from vegetables, and cereals, industry, government, and academia. These profes- Food biochemistry and the processing of sionals are from more than 15 countries and have fermented foods, and diverse expertise and background in the discipline Microbiology and food safety. These experts were led by an international editorial team The above six topics are divided over 31 chapters.
All these in- Subject matters discussed under each topic are dividuals, authors and editors, are responsible for briefly reviewed below. In sum, the end product is unique, both advances in food biotechnology. Specific in depth and breadth, and will serve as examples used include enzymes, protein cross- An essential reference on food biochemistry linking, chymosin in cheesemaking, starch and food processing for professionals in the synthesis in the potato tuber, pectinolytic government, industry, and academia.
A classroom text on food biochemistry and food professional book of this nature is even more diffi- processing in an undergraduate food science cult. We thank the editorial and production teams at program.
Blackwell Publishing for their time, effort, advice, The editorial team thanks all the contributors for and expertise. You are the best judge of the quality sharing their experience in their fields of expertise. They are the people who made this book possible.
We hope you enjoy and benefit from the fruits of Y. Hui their labor. Nip We know how hard it is to develop the content of L. Nollet a book. However, we believe that the production of a G. Paliyath B. Hui Copyright by Blackwell Publishing.
Improvements in food prod- Biochemical Changes of Lipids in Foods ucts by proper handling and primitive processing Changes in Lipids in Food Systems were practiced without knowing the reasons. Currently, some Biochemically Induced Food Flavors of these causes are understood, and others are still Biochemical Degradation and Biosynthesis of Plant being investigated. Food scientists and technolo- Mevalonate and Isopentyl Diphosphate Biosynthesis gists also recognized long ago the importance of a prior to Formation of Carotenoids background in biochemistry, in addition to the basic Naringenin Chalcone Biosynthesis sciences chemistry, physics, microbiology, and Selected Biochemical Changes Important in the Handling mathematics.
To date, food bio- Adenosine Triphosphate Degradation chemistry is still not listed in the IFT recommended Polyphenol Oxidase Browning undergraduate course requirements. However, many. One of the reasons for not requiring such a the activities of bacterial histamine producers, thus course at the undergraduate level may be that a bio- avoiding scombroid or histamine poisoning. These chemistry course is often taken in the last two to are just a few of the examples that will be discussed three semesters before graduation, and there is no in more detail in this chapter and in the commodity room for such a course in the last semesters.
Also, chapters in this book. However, the importance of plex. These can be reviewed either by commodity food biochemistry is now recognized in the subdis- group or by food component.
This introductory cipline of food handling and processing, as many of chapter takes the latter approach by grouping the these problems are biochemistry related. A content- various food components and listing selected related specific journal, the Journal of Food Biochemistry, enzymes and their biochemical reactions without has also been available since for scholars to structural formulas in tables and presenting brief report their food biochemistryrelated research discussions.
This will give the readers another way results, even though they can also report their find- of looking at food biochemistry, but as an introduc- ings to other journals. For example, milk-intolerant consumers in selected biochemical changes in flavors, plant pig- the past did not have the advantage of consuming ments, and other compounds important in food dairy products.
Now they can, with the availability handling and processing. Biotechnological develop- of lactase a biotechnological product at the retail ments as they relate to food handling and processing level in some developed countries. Lactose-free milk are introduced only briefly, as new advances are is also produced commercially in some developed extensively reviewed in Chapter 3. As an example of industrial countries. The socially annoying problem complexity in the food biochemistry area, a diagram of flatulence that results from consuming legumes showing the relationship of similar biochemical re- can be overcome by taking Beano alpha-galac- actions of selected food components carbohy- tosidase preparation from food-grade Aspigillus drates in different commodities is presented.
Ex- niger with meals. Shark meat is made more palat- amples of serial degradation of selected food able by bleeding the shark properly right after catch components are also illustrated with two other dia- to avoid the biochemical reaction of urease on urea, grams.
Proper It should be noted that the main purpose of this control of enzymatic activities also resulted in better chapter is to present an overview of food biochem- products. Tomato juice production is improved by istry by covering some of the basic biochemical proper control of its pectic enzymes. Better color in activities related to various food components and potato chips is the result of control of the oxidative their relations with food handling and processing.
A enzymes and removal of substrates from the cut second purpose is to get more students interested in potato slices. More tender beef is the result of prop- food biochemistry. Purposely, only essential refer- er aging of carcasses and sometimes the addition of ences are cited in the text, to make it easier to read; protease s at the consumer level; although this more extensive listings of references are presented result had been observed in the past, the reasons at the ends of tables and figures.
Readers should behind it were unknown. Ripening inhibition of refer to these references for details and also consult bananas during transport is achieved by removal of the individual commodity chapters in this book and the ripening hormone ethylene in the package to their references for additional information. They cannot be metabolized in the human but are fairly limited in quantity in foods of animal body, but are important carbohydrate reserves in origin.
However, some of the biochemical changes plants and can be metabolized into smaller mole- and their effect s on food quality are common to all cules for utilization during seed germination. Pectic foods regardless of animal or plant origin, while oth- substances pectins are always considered as the ers are specific to an individual food.
Figure 1. They also are not shows the relationship between the enzymatic de- metabolized in the human body. Upon zymes, the glycolysis pathway is common to all ripening, propectins are metabolized into smaller foods. The conversions of glycogen in fish and mam- molecules, giving ripe fruits a soft texture. Proper malian muscles are now known to utilize different control of the enzymatic changes in propectin is pathways, but they end up with the same glucose commercially important in fruits, such as tomatoes, phosphate.
Lactic acid formation is an important apples, and persimmons. Tomato fruits usually dont phenomenon in rigor mortis and souring and cur- ripen at the same time on the vines, but this can be dling of milk, as well as in the manufacturing of achieved by genetically modifying their pectic sauerkraut and other fermented vegetables. Ethanol enzymes see below. Genetically modified toma- is an important end product in the production of toes can now reach a similar stage of ripeness before alcoholic beverages, bread making, and to a much consumption and processing without going through smaller extent in some overripe fruits.
The citric acid extensive manual sorting. Fuji apples can be kept in cycle is also important in alcoholic fermentation, the refrigerator for a much longer time than other cheese maturation, and fruit ripening. Persimmons are hard in the unripe cose units as an energy source for yeast to grow and stage, but can be ripened to a very soft texture due to develop so that the dough can rise during the fermen- pectic enzyme activity as well as the degradation of tation period before punching, proofing, and baking.
Table 1. They are hydrates; instead its main carbohydrate is lactose. The glu- dase lactase by lactic acid bacteria. The latter to various smaller molecules through various bio- two groups of reactions are beyond the scope of this chemical reactions that are important in the flavor chapter. Degradation of glycogen and starch. Duffus , Kruger and Lineback , Kruger et al. This table also lists by the catalase. Application of this process is used some enzymes and reaction products of organic acids almost exclusively for whole egg and other yolk- present in very small amounts in milk.
However, they containing products. However, for dehydrated egg are important flavor components e. Application of yeast fermentation to remove glucose is also possible. Glucose is present in very small quantities in egg albumen and egg yolk. Glucose oxidase converts glucose to glu- many decades.
Application of these biochemical conic acid and hydrogen peroxide. This is and other industries. In the s, researchers dis- another example of the successful application of covered that some xylose isomerase D-xylose-keto- biochemical reactions in the food industry.
The structure will break down slowly after Figure Huff-Lonergan and Lonergan , Greaser In order to understand these changes, it is impor- Individual muscle fibers are composed of myofib- tant to understand the structure of animal tissues. The skeletal muscle of fish differs from myofibrillar proteins associated with contractile ap- that of mammals in that the fibers arranged between paratus and cytoskeletal framework of animal tis- the sheets of connective tissue are much shorter.
The sues. Schematic drawings and pictures microscopic, connective tissue is present as short transverse sheets scanning, and transmission electronic microscopic myocommata that divide the long fish muscles into images of tissue macro- and microstructures are segments myotomes corresponding in numbers to available in various textbooks and references.
Chap- those of the vertebrae. A fine network of tubules, the ter 13 in this book, Biochemistry of Raw Meat and sarcoplasmic reticulum separates the individual myo- Poultry, also shows a diagram of meat macro- and fibrils. Within each fiber is a liquid matrix, referred microstructures. Examination of available literature, the following explanation can be myofibrils under a phase contrast light microscope considered.
At the initial postmortem stage, cal- shows them to be cross-striated due to the presence pains, having optimal near neutral pH, attack certain of alternating dark or A-bands and light or I-bands. With the pro- similar in both fish and meat. A lighter band or H- gression of postmortem glycolysis, the pH drops to zone transverses the A-band, while the I-band has a 5. This explanation does not rule center of the H-zone in some cases not shown in out the roles played by other postmortem proteolytic Fig.
The basic unit of the myofibril is the sar- systems that can contribute to this tenderization. See Eskin , Haard , Huff-Lonergan and Examination of the sarcomere by electron micro- Lonergan , Gopakumar , Jiang , Simp- scope reveals two sets of filaments within the fibrils, a son , Lowrie , and Greaser In addition to the used in meat tenderization.
Papain, ficin, and brome- paracrystalline arrangement of the thick and thin set lain are proteases of plant origin that can breakdown of filaments, there is a filamentous cytoskeletal animal proteins. They have been applied in meat ten- structure composed of connectin and desmin.
Enzymes effect of glycolysis and actions of proteases such as such as pepsins, trypsins, cathepsins, are well known cathepsins and calpains. Meat tenderization is a very in the degradation of animal tissues at various sites complex multifactorial process controlled by a num- of the protein peptide chains. Enteropeptidase en- ber of endogenous proteases and some as yet poorly terokinase is also known to activate trypsinogen understood biological parameters.
With currently by cleaving its peptide bond at Lys6-Ile7. Preferential peptidase E, pancreatic elastase I, cleavage: Activates phosphorylase, kinase, and cyclic- nucleotide-dependent protein kinase Metalloproteases Procollagen N-proteinase EC 3. Proteolytic activities are much lower in germinating seeds. Transglutaminase TGase, EC 2. Proteases of plant origin such as in the protein molecule s. Formation of covalent papain, ficin, and bromelain, and possibly other cross-links between proteins is the basis for TGase to microbial proteases, can break down these proteins.
The Addition of one or more of these enzymes is com- addition of microbial TGase to surimi significantly monly practiced in the brewing industry to reduce increases its gel strength, particularly when the suri- this chill-haze problem. In general, they are mine to form glutamic acid Ashie and Lanier In cheese making, lactic acid bacteria Table 1.
Because of the number of double bonds starter gradually lower the milk pH to the 4. Most lactic at various sites, and the responsible lipoxygenases acid starters have limited proteolytic activities. How- are labeled according to these sites Table 1. Other en- Milk contains a considerable amount of lipids and zymes such as decarboxylases, deaminases, and these milk lipids are subjected to enzymatic oxida- transaminase are responsible for the degradations of tion during cheese ripening.
These reactions are zymes and their reactions. Schormuller ; Kilara and Shahani ; Law a,b; Grappin et al. Enzyme Reaction Aminopeptidase EC 3. Readers they have attracted the most attention, and various should refer to chapters 19, 20, and 26 in this book pathways in the conversion of fatty acids have been for a detailed discussion.
The fatty acids hydrolyzed from the oilseed glycerides are further metabolized into acyl-CoA. During seed germination, the lipids are degraded It is reasonable to believe that similar patterns also enzymatically to serve as energy source for plant exist in other nonoily seeds. Seed germination is growth and development. Because of the presence of important in production of malted barley flour for a considerable amount of seed lipids in oilseeds, bread making and brewing.
Bewley and Black , Murphy Lemon and The main enzymes involved in biogeneration of the orange seeds contain limonin, a bitter substance that aroma in fresh fish have been reported as the and can be hydrolyzed to limonate, which creates a less lipoxygenases Table 1. Many cruciferous vegetables lyase.
The lipoxygenase acts on specific polyun- such as cabbage and broccoli have a sulfurous odor saturated fatty acids and produces nhydroperox- due to the production of a thiol after enzymatic ides.
Hydrolysis of the 9-hydroperoxide of eicos- hydrolysis of its glucoside. These are just some apentenoic acid by specific hydroperoxide lyases examples of biochemically induced fruit and veg- leads to the formation of mainly Z,Z nonadi- etable flavors.
Brewed tea darkens after it is exposed enal, which can undergo spontaneous or enzyme- to air due to enzymatic oxidation.
Flavors from catalyzed isomerization to E,Z -2,6-nonadienal. Formation of fishy corresponding alcohols. This conversion is a signifi- odor will be described later see below. Readers cant step in the general decline of the aroma intensi- interested in this subject should consult Wong ty due to the fact that alcohols have somewhat higher for earlier findings of chemical reactions. Straw- berries have a very typical pleasant odor when they Green fruits are rich in chlorophylls that are gradu- ripen.
Biochemical production of the key compound ally degraded during ripening. Enzyme Reaction Alliin lyase EC 4. Wong , Eskin , Chin and Lindsay , Orruno et al. Enzyme Reaction Chlorophyllase EC 3. Eskin , Dangl et al. R -mevalonate is also a building block for terpenoid biosynthesis Croteau et al. Iso- red, blue, or violet colors, but also are related to pentyl diphosphate is a key building block for caro- the group of bioactive compounds called stilbenes.
Carotenoids are the They have a common precursor of trans-cinnamate group of fat-soluble pigments that provides the yel- branching out into two routes, one leading to the low to red colors of many common fruits such as flavonoids, and the other leading to stilbenes Table yellow peaches, papayas, and mangoes. During post- 1. Considerable interest has harvest maturation, these fruits show intense yellow been given to the stilbene trans 3,5,4-trihydroxystil- to yellowish orange colors due to synthesis of caro- bene commonly called reveratrol or resveratrol in tenoids from its precursor isopentyl diphosphate, red grapes and red wine that may have potent antitu- which is derived from R -mevalonate.
Biosyntheses mor properties and to another stilbene, combretas- of carotenoids and terpenoids have a common pre- tatin, with potential antineoplastic activity Croteau. Croteau et al. Enzyme Reaction Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase EC 4. Eskin , Croteau et al. These disorders seem to be in the biosynthesis of naringenin chalcone. Naring- strongly influenced by other related biogenic amines, enin chalcone is the building block for flavonoid such as putrescine and cadaverine, produced by sim- biosynthesis.
The pathway for the biosynthesis of a ilar enzymatic decarboxylation Table 1. Degradation of trimethylamine and its N-oxide leads to the formation of ammonia and formaldehyde with undesirable odors.
The pathway on the production of formaldehyde and ammonia from trimethylamine and its N-oxide is shown in Figure 1. In postmortem scombroid fish, the free histidine is converted by the bacterial enzyme histidine decarboxylase into free histamine. Histamine is produced in fish caught 40 Figure 1. Degradation of trimethylamine and its N- oxide. Trimethylamine N-oxide reductase EC 1. Improper handling of tuna and mackerel Dimethylamne dehydrogenase EC 1. The common symptoms of this kind of food NC website www.
Enzyme Reaction Histidine decarboxyalse EC 4. However, the detection and quantifica- also labeled as phenoloxidase, phenolase, monophe- tion of putrescine and cadaverine are more compli- nol and diphenol oxidase, and tyrosinase.
This en- cated and expensive. It is suspected that histamine zyme catalyzes one of the most important color re- may not be the real and main cause of poisoning, as actions that affects many fruits, vegetables, and histamine is not stable under strong acidic condi- seafood, especially crustaceans.
This postmortem tions such as pH 1 in the stomach. However, the discoloration in crustacean species such as lobster, U. Food and Drug Administration FDA has strict shrimp, and crab is also called melanosis or black regulations governing the amount of histamine per- spot.
It connotes spoilage, is unacceptable to con- missible in canned tuna, as an index of freshness of sumers, and thus reduces the market value of these the raw materials, because of the simplicity of hista- products. Polyphenol oxidase is responsible for catalyzing two basic reactions. Urea is hydrolyzed by urease EC 3. TVB nitrogen has been used as a quality and lobster are activated by trypsin or by a trypsin- index of seafood acceptability by various agencies like enzyme in the tissues to hydroxylate tyrosine Johnson and Linsay , Cadwallader , Go- with the formation of dihydroxylphenylamine pakumar A good example is shark, which DOPA.
The second reaction is the oxidation of the contains fairly high amounts of urea in the live fish. To The major effect of reducing agents or antioxi- overcome this problem, the current practice of dants in the prevention of browning is their ability to bleeding the shark near its tail right after harvest is reduce the o-quinones to the colorless diphenols, or very promising.
The most widespread antibrowning treat- Adenosine triphosphate ATP is present in all bio- ment used by the food industry was the addition of logical systems. Its degradation in seafood has often sulfiting agents. However, because of safety con- been reported Fig. The degradation products, such as inosine the use of other reducing agents such as ascorbic and hypoxanthine, have been used individually or in acid and analogs, cysteine and glutathione , chelat- combination as indices of freshness for many years.
Application of these inhibitors of enzymatic browning is strictly regulated in different countries Eskin , Gopa- kumar , Kim et al. Its concentration is very low in green fruits but can accumulate inside the fruit and subsequently activates its own production. The effect of ethylene is commonly observed in the shipping of bananas.
The banana is a climacteric fruit with a fast ripening process. During shipping of green bananas, ethylene is removed through absorption by potassium permanganate to render a longer shelf life. Since it exists as a mixed salt with elements such as potassi- um, magnesium, and calcium and as such is called phytin or phytate , it is also a major source of these macronutrient elements in the seed.
However, this salt form of macronutrients renders them unusable by the human body. During seed germination, phy- tase 4-phytase, phytatephosphatase, EC 3. Breakdown of phytate is rapid and complete Stauffer a,b; Berger ; Bewley This enzymatic reaction re- leases the macronutrients from their bound forms so they are more easily utilized by the human body.
This explains why breads utilizing flour from germi- nated wheat are more nutritious than those made from regular wheat flour. Degradation of adenosine triphosphate ATP in seafoods.
ATP phosphohydrolase EC 3. Eskin , Bryce and Hill , Crozier et al.
At least six biotechnology- dairy, baking, and brewing industries Table 1. Chymosin has now been well adopted by the cheese industry because of reliable supply and rea- sonable cost. Amylases are also being used for the organization to pull together those working in food production of high fructose corn syrup and as an processing, chemistry, engineering, microbiology, anti-staling agent for bread. The application of pec- and other subdisciplines who were trying to better tic enzymes in genetically modified tomatoes was understand food and help solve some of its related mentioned earlier.
It should be noted that each coun- problems.
Now, most countries have similar organi- try has its own regulations governing the use of zations, and the IFT has developed into a world these biotechnology-derived enzymes.
Now, in the United States and Canada, oped for specific needs. Lactic acid bacteria and most of these programs about 50 in total have yeast have been developed to solve problems in the evolved into a food science or food science and. Enzyme Application Acetolactate decarboxylase EC 4. Microorganisms Application Lactobacillus lactis Phage resistance, lactose metabolism, proteolytic activity, bacteriocin production Saccharomyces Bakers yeast Gas carbon dioxide production in sweet, high-sugar dough Saccharomyces cervisiae Brewers yeast Manufacture of low-calorie beer starch degradation Sources: Hill and Ross , Roller and Goodenough , Anonymous The IFT has played an be limited to those in food safety, improved nutrient important role in these developments.
There are also content, delayed food spoilage, better raw materials programs in other countries where food science is for processing and product development, better pro- grouped under other traditional disciplines such as cessing technology, and less expensive flavoring biology or chemistry.
However, some universities in materials. In the near future, we should not be sur- a few countries put more emphasis on food science prised when researchers report breakthroughs that and form a school or a college. Many food science are food biochemistry related. In fact, this is expect- departments with a food biochemistry emphasis are ed, as we now have better trained researchers and now available all over the world, and they promote more advanced research tools.
Although its study their programs through the Internet. These depart- requires a diversified background, food biochem- ments place their emphases on one or more com- istry is gaining more interest in the food science dis- modities. It is an area that will attract more students, Research reports on various topics of food sci- especially with the current interest in biotechnology.
Tang, Department nals until , when the first issue of Journal of of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, Uni- Food Biochemistry was published. Although food versity of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, and biochemistryrelated reports are still published in Prof. Mike Morgan, Proctor, Department of Food other journals, establishment of this journal is a Science, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, for milestone for this subdiscipline of food science.
Examples of such achievements as lactase, nology and Foods. Food Technology 54 Transglutaminases in sea- with easier ripening control, application of transglu- food processing. New York: Marcel Dekker, proteases for meat tenderization, production of high Inc. Flour aging. B Godon, C Willm, lier. With the recent interest and development in editors.
Primary Cereal Processing. VCH biotechnology, food biochemists are trying to apply Publishers, Inc. Seed germination and dormancy. These may include but not Plant Cell 9: Bewley JD, Black M. Physiology of Develop- Gill T. Nucleotide-degrading enzymes. NF ment and Germination, 2nd ed. New Press. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Energy production and plant Gopakumar K. Enzymes and enzyme products as cells. John Seafood Enzymes.
Wiley and Sons. Cadwallader KR. Primary proteol- sis. Dairy Sci- zymes. Modulation of volatile Greaser M. Postmortem muscle Chemistry. Marcel in Foods. Washington, DC: American Chemical So- Dekker, Inc.
Gripon JC. Mould-ripened cheeses. Natural editor, Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbi- products secondary metabolites. BB Buchenan, ology. Elsevier Applied Science. Molecular Biology of Plants. Rockwell, Maryland: Occurrence and American Society of Plant Physiologists.
Bio- Connecticut: AVI Publishing Company. Rock- Biochemical reactions in fish muscle ologists. Senescence Science and Technology.
Fishing News and programmed cell death. Haung TC. Biosynthesis of natural aroma com- American Society of Plant Physiologists. Kru- book of Food Science. CRC Press. Starter cultures for the dairy nesota: American Association of Cereal Chemists. Modification in the Food Industry. Blackie Eskin NAM. Biochemistry of Foods. San Diego: Academic Press. Desugarization of egg products. WJ meat pigments , fruits and vegetables , Stadelman, OJ Cotterill, editors, Egg Science and seed germination , brewing , Technology.
Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing , baking , milk coagu- Co. Principles of Cereal Science and matic browning , off-flavor in milk , Technology. Paul, Minnesota: American Associ- biotechnology. Role of lipoxy- brewing , yeast-leavened products. AJ St. Postmortem Angelo, editor, Lipid Oxidation in Food.
Washing- mechanisms of meat tenderization. YL Xiong, ton, DC: American Chemical Society. CT Ho, F Shahidi, editors. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
A Review. Journal of Food Protection 50 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular. Simpson, editors, Seafood Enzymes. Jiang ST. Enzymes and their effects on seafood Lowrie RA. Conversion of muscle into meat: Seafood Biochemistry.
Royal Society of Chemistry. Enzymatic generation TH Murphy DJ. Plant lipidsTheir metabolism, Parliament, R Croteau, editors, Biogeneration of function, and utilization. John Wiley and Sons. The role of of Lactic streptococci and their role in maturation of beta-glucosidase in the biosynthesis of 2,5- cheese: A review. Journal of Dairy Science Fragaria X ananassa cv. LactobacilliTheir Fragrance Journal 16 2: NF Haard, A review.
Kilara A, Shahani KM.
Food enzymes. S dairy foods and their biological significance. Polyphenoloxi- The chemistry and biochemistry Enzymes. Advances in Food Research. Kolakowska A. Lipid oxidation in food systems. Simpson BK. Digestive proteinases from marine In: Boca Ra- food Enzymes. Carbohydrate- Smith CJ. Carbohydrate biochemistry. PJ degrading enzymes in cereals. John Wiley and in Cereal Technology. American Sons. Association of Cereal Chemists. Stauffer CE. Enzymes inhibitors.
American Association of Law BA. Microorganisms and their enzymes in Cereal Chemists. ME Bushell, editor,. Ester hydrolases. Enzymes and Progress in Industrial Microbiology, London: Their Role in Cereal Technology. Paul, Min- Elsevier. Flavour Development in Cheeses. Contribution of lactic acid bacteria to biology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented cheese ripening. Chemistry of Structure-Function Relationships in perties and Processes.
Marcel Dekker, Cheese. Plenum Press. TMAO-degrading tion , cheese making. Mechanisms and Theory in Food food Enzymes. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Dairy Technology: Many food proteins Pigment Analysis References have been purified and characterized over the years and found to range from approximately to more than a million Daltons.
These ele- Without question, food can be considered as a very ments are formed into twenty different amino acids, complex and heterogeneous composition of hun- which are linked together by peptide bonds to form dreds, if not thousands, of different biochemical proteins.
In general, nitrogen is the most distin- compounds. Without the ability to measure both specifi- been performed by determining the nitrogen content cally and quantitatively those biochemical compo- of the food product after complete acidic hydrolysis nents in food matrices, further advancements in the and digestion by the Kjeldahl method and subse- understanding of how foods change during matura- quent conversion to protein content using various tion or processing would not be possible.
As far back as the turn of the centu- tive analysis of all the different food components, the ry, colorimetric protein determination methods such major techniques for the analysis of protein, lipids, as the Biuret procedure which exploited the devel- carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and pigments opment of the violet-purplish color that is produced will be addressed in detail in this chapter.
The prin- when cupric ions complex with peptide bonds under ciples behind their analysis are the building blocks alkaline conditions became available. The color ab- for other analytical determinations, including tech- sorbance is measured at nm, with the color in- niques such as gas chromatography, high perform- tensity absorbance being proportional to the pro- ance liquid chromatography HPLC , and spectros- tein content Chang with a sensitivity of copy, including infrared and mass spectroscopy.
Over the years, further modifications. More recently, with the of the Folin-Ciocalteau phenol reagent phospho- advent of capillary electrophoresis, proteins can be molybdic-phosphotungstic acid by tyrosine and separated on the basis of charge or size in an electric tryptophan residues in the proteins.
The resulting field within a very short period of time. Other methods exploit the tendency of pro- that a capillary tube is used in place of a polyacry- teins to absorb strongly in the ultraviolet spectrum lamide gel.
Unlike a gel, which must be made and i. Since the tryptophan and tyrosine con- and over. Electrophoresis flow within the capillary tents in proteins are generally constant, the absorb- also can influence separation of the proteins in capil- ance at nm has been used to estimate the lary electrophoresis Smith Because High performance liquid chromatography HPLC each protein has a unique aromatic amino acid com- is another extremely fast analytical technique that position, the extinction coefficient E must be possesses excellent precision and specificity as well determined for each individual protein for protein as the proven ability to separate protein mixtures content estimation.
Many different kinds of Although these methods are appropriate for quan- HPLC techniques exist, depending on the nature of titating the actual amounts of proteins available the column characteristics chain length, porosity, within a sample or commodity, they do not possess etc.
In principle, proteins can be types of proteins within a mixture. Reversed-phase chromatography is gener- cal field Smith Although several forms of ally achieved on an inert column packing, typically this technique exist, zonal electrophoresis in which covalently bonded with a high density of hydropho- proteins are separated from a complex mixture into bic functional groups, such as linear hydrocarbons bands by migrating in aqueous buffers through a sol- with 4, 8, or 18 residues in length, or the relatively id polymer matrix called a polyacrylamide gel is more polar phenyl group.
In fact, reversed-phase perhaps the most common. It has been shown their charge, size, and hydrodynamic shape. In dena- that the processing quality of various grains depends turing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis PAGE , on their physical and chemical characteristics, an anionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS , which are at least partially genetic in origin, and that is used to separate protein subunits by size Smith a wide range of qualities exists within varieties of Isoelectric focusing is a modification of elec- each species Osborne The selection of the trophoresis in which proteins are separated by charge appropriate cultivar is therefore an important deci- in an electrophoretic field on a gel matrix in which a sion for a farmer, since it greatly influences the pH gradient has been generated using ampholytes.
Size-exclusion chromatog- usually greater than 12 carbons, although the vast raphy utilizes uniform rigid particles whose uniform majority of animal and vegetable fats are made up of pores are sufficiently large for the protein molecules fatty acid molecules of greater than 16 carbons.
Large molecules do not enter the pores of The total lipid content of a food is commonly the column particles and are therefore excluded, that determined using various organic solvent extraction is, they are eluted in the void volume of the column methods. Unfortunately, the wide range of relative i. An application example of size- for lipid extraction and quantitation Min and Steen- exclusion chromatography is the separation of soy- son In addition to various solvent extraction bean proteins Oomah et al.
In one particular methods using various solvents , there are nonsol- study, nine peaks were eluted for soybean, corre- vent wet extraction methods and other instrumental sponding to different protein size fractions; one peak methods that utilize the chemical and physical prop- showed a high variability for the relative peak area erties of lipids for content determination.
Differences, qualitatively and iest to perform methods is the Soxhlet method, a quantitatively, in peanut seed protein composition semicontinuous extraction method that allows for were detected by size-exclusion chromatography the sample in the extraction chamber to be com- and contributed to evaluation of genetic differences, pletely submerged in solvents for 10 minutes or processing conditions, and seed maturity.
Basha more before the extracted lipid and solvent are found that size-exclusion chromatography siphoned back into the boiling flask reservoir. The was an excellent indicator of seed maturity.
Basha whole process is repeated numerous times until all discovered that the area of one particular the fat is removed. The fat content is determined component peak decreased with increasing maturi- either by measuring the weight loss of the sample or ty and remained unchanged towards later stages of the weight of lipid removed.
The peak was present in all studied Another excellent method for total fat determina- cultivars, all showing a mature seed protein profile tion includes supercritical fluid extraction. In this with respect to this particular peak, which was there- method, a compressed gas usually CO2 is brought fore called Maturin. For this reason, lipid Steenson The dissolved fat is then separated insolubility in water becomes an important distin- from the compressed, liquified gas by a drop in pres- guishing and analytical factor used in separating sure, and the precipitated lipid is then quantified as lipids from other cellar components such as carbo- percent lipid by weight Min and Steenson Fats Another method often used for total lipid quanti- solids at room temperature and oils liquid at room tation is the infrared method, which is based on the temperature are composed primarily of tri-esters of absorption of infrared energy by fat at a wavelength glycerol with fatty acids and are commonly called of 5.
In general, the triglycerides. Other major lipid types found in foods more energy is absorbed at 5. Near-infrared spec- and phospholipids. In general, many naturally the sample, in contrast to other previously reviewed occurring lipids are composed of various numbers of methods.
Although the above-cited methods are appropri- method for determination of triglycerides by parti- ate for quantitating the actual amounts of lipids tion numbers in vegetable oils by liquid chromatog- within a given sample, they do not offer the ability raphy as an IUPAC-AOC-AOAC method.
In this to characterize the types of fatty acids within a mix- method, triglycerides in vegetable oils are separated ture. Gas chromatography, however, does offer the according to their equivalent carbon number by ability to characterize these lipids in terms of their reversed-phase HPLC and detected by differential fatty acid composition Pike First of all, refractometry.
The isolated the number of double bonds Marini The fatty acids are including among other things, imparting important now volatile and can be separated chromatographi- physical properties to the foods as well as constitut- cally using various packed and capillary columns ing a major source of energy in the human diet.
In using a variety of temperature-time gradients. Such and Low Interestingly, although the most analyses are important for the edible oil industry for carbohydrates are in the form of polysaccharides, process and product quality control purposes as well starches are about the only polysaccharide that is as for the understanding of triglyceride biosynthesis digestible by humans.
The vast majority of polysac- and deposition in plant and animal cells Marini charides are therefore nondigestible, and they have The most acyl chains Marini After reaction with phenol in acid in The IUPAC Commission on Oils, Fats, and Deriv- the presence of heat, a stable color is produced that atives undertook the development of a method for can be read spectrophotometrically. A standard the determination of triglycerides in vegetable oils curve is usually prepared with a carbohydrate simi- by liquid chromatography.
Materials studied includ- lar to these being measured. It has matography Peris-Tortajada Those s Sweeley et al. Certain For carbohydrates to be analyzed by gas chro- minerals or macrominerals are required in quanti- matography, they must first be converted into vol- ties of more than mg per day; these include atile derivatives. Perhaps the most commonly used sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, calci- derivatizing agent is trimethylsilyl TMS.
In this um, chlorine, and sulfur. Another 10 minerals trace procedure, the aldonic acid forms of carbohydrates minerals are required in milligram quantities per are converted into their TMS ethers.
The reaction day; these include silica, selenium, fluoride, molyb- mixtures are then injected directly into the chro- denum, manganese, chromium, copper, zinc, iodine, matograph, and temperature programming is uti- and iron Hendricks Each of the macro- and lized to optimize the separation and identification of trace minerals has a specific biochemical role in individual components. A flame ionization detector maintaining body function and is important to over- is still the detector of choice for carbohydrates.
Un- all health and well-being. An exam- peaks and quantitative information for complex ple of this is salt, which is added during processing mixtures of carbohydrates. HPLC has been shown to to decrease water activity and to act as a preservative be an excellent choice for the separation and analy- e. For the analy- minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc are added to sis of larger polysaccharides, a hydrolysis step is various breakfast cereals. In fact, salt itself is forti- required prior to chromatographic analysis.
A vari- fied with iodine in North America in order to control ety of different columns can be used, with bonded goiter. During ity properties Peris-Tortajada The elution the actual washing and blanching of various foods, order on amine-bonded stationary phases is usually important minerals are often lost. It can therefore be monosaccharide and sugar alcohols followed by dis- concluded that accurate and specific methods for accharides and oligosaccharides.
Such columns have mineral determination are in fact important for nu- been successfully used to analyze carbohydrates in tritional purposes as well as for properly processing anything from fruits and vegetables all the way to food products for both human and animal consump- processed foods such as cakes, confectionaries, bev- tion.
With larger polysaccharides, gel filtration be- a food material, the ashing procedure is usually per- comes the preferred chromatographic technique, as formed. Ash refers to the inorganic residue that re- found in the literature. Gel filtration media such as mains after ignition, or in some cases complete oxi- Sephadex and Bio-Gel have been successfully dation, of organic material Harbers Ashing used to characterize polysaccharides according to can be divided into three main types: Typically, levels down to 0.
When working with ion- volatile elemental analysis is conducted. Most minerals are converted to oxides, phosphates, sul- fates, chlorides, or silicates. Nitric and perchloric Russell Since the vast majority of vitamins acids are often used, and reagent blanks are carried cannot be synthesized by humans, they must be throughout the procedure and are subtracted from obtained from either food or dietary supplements.
About this book The biochemistry of food is the foundation on which the research and development advances in food biotechnology are built. Hui has assembled over fifty acclaimed academicians and industry professionals to create this indispensable reference and text on food biochemistry and the ever-increasing development in the biotechnology of food processing.
While biochemistry may be covered in a chapter or two in standard reference books on the chemistry, enzymes, or fermentation of food, and may be addressed in greater depth by commodity-specific texts e.
Food Biochemistry and Food Processing effectively fills this void. Author Bios Y. Hui is a consultant to the food industry and has served as author or editor of numerous books in food science, technology, engineering, including the Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology ; Foodborne Disease Handbook ; Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering; and Food Processing: Principles and Applications.
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