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Page 5 of 35 Full file at https: It is the single most important standard in database processing and is used for the design and implementation of almost every commercial database worldwide.
It can be of a variable length, if that attribute is considered to be a single thing like a memo or other variable length data item. These terms are synonyms for table, row, and column. These terms, however, generally refer to pre-relational bases.
Page 6 of 35 Full file at https: These terms, however, are the ones used in relational database theory. When manipulating a relation with a DBMS we may end up with duplicate rows. Although in theory we should eliminate the duplicates, in practice this is often not done. A unique key is a column whose values identify one and only one row.
A nonunique key not only identifies a row, but it potentially identifies more than one row. Both are unique identifiers. One is chosen to be the identifier for the relation and for foreign keys based on the relation. The other could be chosen as well, but since it is not, it is called a candidate. Page 7 of 35 Full file at https: A surrogate key is a unique, numeric identifier that is appended to a relation to serve as the primary key.
They are supplied automatically by the DBMS. Surrogate keys are normally hidden because they usually have no meaning to the users. A foreign key creates the relationship between the tables; its key value corresponds to a primary key in a relation other than the one where the key is a primary key.
Primary keys are underlined and foreign keys are in italics. Referential integrity constraint is a rule specifying that every value of a foreign key matches a value of the primary key.
Three possible interpretations are: An example of null value would be: A functional dependency is a logical relationship in which the value of one item in the relationship can be determined by knowing the value of the other item.
The item on the left—the one whose value is known—is called the determinant. For example: Page 10 of 35 Full file at https: A primary key is one or more attributes that functionally determines all of the other attributes.
Because the collection of all the attributes in the relation can identify a unique row. The purpose of the normalization process is to prevent update problems in the tables relations in the database. The nature of the normalization process is that we break up relations as necessary to ensure that every determinant is a candidate key. What is the danger of making such conclusions on the basis of sample data?
For example, two owners might have pets with the same name. What attribute s can be the primary key of this relation? Attributes that can be the primary key are called candidate keys. PetName 2. Changes to owner data may need to be made in several rows. Deleting data for the last pet of an owner deletes owner data as well. Page 11 of 35 Full file at https: PetName, Date 2.
Same as 2. Show the results of each of the steps in the normalization process. PetName Page 12 of 35 Full file at https: Break into two relations: Functional Dependencies: OwnerPhone, OwnerEmail Is every determinant a candidate key?
We can choose either candidate key as primary key. PetName Is every determinant a candidate key? PetName Page 13 of 35 Full file at https: PetName, Date Is every determinant a candidate key? We will use OwnerPhone. If a student chooses OwnerEmail, the steps will be similar as shown in Exercise 2. PetName, Date Page 15 of 35 Full file at https: Show an example of this relation for two students, one of whom has three siblings and the other of whom has only two siblings.
List the candidate keys in this relation. State the functional dependencies in this relation. Explain why this relation does not meet the relational design criteria set out in this chapter i. Some attributes are functionally dependent on a part of the composite primary key. Page 16 of 35 Full file at https: Divide this relation into a set of relations that meet the relational design criteria that is, that are well formed.
StudentNumber, SiblingName Is every determinant a candidate key? StudentNumber Is every determinant a candidate key? In this case, the relational structure is: Show an example of this relation for two students, one of whom has three siblings and the other of whom has one sibling. Assume that each student has a single major.
Page 17 of 35 Full file at https: Show the data changes necessary to add a second major for only the first student. Based on your answer to part B, show the data changes necessary to add a second major for the second student.
Explain the differences in your answers to parts B and C. Comment on the desirability of this situation. We had to add three rows in the first case—one major for each of the siblings of the student. This is nuts! Divide this relation into a set of well-formed relations. StudentNumber, Major Is every determinant a candidate key? Page 19 of 35 Full file at https: In a properly normalized relation, each row of the relation consists of a primary key value which is a determinant and attribute values which are all functionally dependent on the primary key.
Thus, properly normalized relations store instances of functional dependencies, and only instances of functional dependencies. So we can say that the purpose of relations is to store instances of functional dependencies. Figure shows data that Regional Labs collects about projects and the employees assigned to them. Assuming that all functional dependencies are apparent in this data, which of the following are true?
Are all the nonkey attributes if any dependent on the primary key? To give an employee a salary, we must first assign the employee to a project. If we change a Salary, we have to change it in multiple places and may create inconsistent data. Is ProjectID a determinant? If so, based on which functional dependencies in part A?
Is EmployeeName a determinant? Is EmployeeSalary a determinant? NO Actually, for the data in Figure , it is a determinant. However, the dataset is too small to validate this determinant, and logically EmployeeSalary is not a determinant! Does this relation contain a transitive dependency? If so, what is it? Redesign the relation to eliminate modification anomalies.
The following seems workable: Garden Glory is owned by two partners. They employ two office administrators and a number of full- and part-time gardeners. Garden Glory will provide one-time garden services, but it specializes in ongoing service and maintenance. Many of its customers have multiple buildings, apartments, and rental houses that require gardening and lawn maintenance services. Figure shows data that Garden Glory collects about properties and services.
Using these data, state assumptions about functional dependencies among the columns of data. Justify your assumptions on the basis of these sample data and also on the basis of what you know about service businesses.
From the data it appears that there are many functional dependencies that could be defined. Some examples are: Page 22 of 35 Full file at https: There is simply not enough data to reply on it. Logically, it seems that we need one ID column—a surrogate key will be required here.
With regard to services, it would seem likely that a given service could be given to the same property, but on different dates. So, if we had a good determinant for property, then the last functional dependency would be true.
So, the following seems workable: Given your assumptions in part A, comment on the appropriateness of the following designs: For example, PropertyName does not determine ServiceDate.
There may be more than one service on a given date. For example, PropertyName, ServiceDate does not determine Description since there may be more than one service at a property on a given date. For example, PropertyID, ServiceDate does not determine Description since there may be more than one service at a property on a given. Page 23 of 35 Full file at https: The question then becomes: Which one should we keep?
Finally the relationship is set up correctly.
Now we can have many services even on the same date for one property. Suppose Garden Glory decides to add the following table: Modify the tables from part B as necessary to minimize the amount of data duplication. Will this design work for the data in Figure ? If not, modify the design so that this data will work. David M. Kroenke, Bowling Green State University. David J.
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