Business Organisation and Office Management. Pages Download Book ( PDF, KB) Download Book (ePub, KB) Pages Introduction to. BUSINESS ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT. CONTENTS Scott & Mitchell in his book “Organisation Theory,” emphasises that management process is. Business Organisation & Management PDF. SM-1() in English File · SM(1- 17) in Hindi File. Daisy Audio Books. Students may download the Amis Daisy.
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Financial Management B. Goel Avichal Publishing Company Edition no. Max Weber - , Germany Weber described bureaucracy as the most efficient way of working. Bureaucracy in this context is the organisational form of certain dominant characteristics such as a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules.
Bureaucracy in a sense of red tape or officialdom should not be used as these meanings are value-ridden and only emphasise very negative aspects of the original Max Weber model. Authority is distinguished from power by Weber. Power is a unilateral thing - it enables a person to force another to behave in a certain way, whether by means of strength or by rewards.
Authority, on the other hand, implies acceptance of the rules by those over whom it is to be exercised within limits agreeable to the subordinates that Weber refers to in discussing legitimate authority. Weber presented three types of legitimate authority also discussed in Section 5a : Traditional authority: where acceptance of those in authority arose from tradition and custom.
Charismatic authority: where acceptance arises from loyalty to, and confidence in, the personal qualities of the ruler.
Rational-legal authority: where acceptance arises out of the office, or position, of the person in authority as bounded by the rules and procedures of the organisation. It is the rational-legal authority form that exists in most organisations today and this is the form to which Weber ascribed the term 'bureaucracy'.
The main features of bureaucracy according to Weber were: a continuous organisation or functions bounded by rules that individuals functioned within the limits of the specialisation of the work, the degree of authority allocated and the rules governing the exercise of authority a hierarchical structure of offices appointment to offices made on the grounds of technical competence only the separation of officials from the ownership of the organisation the authority was vested in the official positions and not in the personalities that held these posts.
Rules, decisions and actions were formulated and recorded in writing. The efficiency of this rational and logistical organisation shares a considerable amount of common ground with the thinking of Fayol.
In particular, features such as scalar chain, specialisation, authority and the definition of jobs which were so essential to successful management as described by Fayol, are typical of bureaucracy. There is also little doubt that Weber's ideas concerning specific spheres of competence and employment based on technical competence would have considerable appeal for Taylor's scientific managers. Advantages Appointment, promotion and authority were dependent on technical competence and reinforced by written rules and procedures of promoting those most able to manage rather than those favoured to manage.
This action is usually framed by formal membership and form institutional rules. Sociology distinguishes the term organisation into planned formal and unplanned informal i.
Sociology analyses organisations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organisation is an enduring arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labour. Economic approaches to organisations also take the division of labour as a starting point.
The division of labour allows for economies of specialisation. Increasing specialisation necessitates coordination. From an economic point of view, markets and organisations are alternative coordination mechanisms for the execution of transactions. By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organisation is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements.
The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements.
Advantages of organisations are enhancement more of the same , addition combination of different features and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness through co-ordination and loss of interaction.