Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits. By N. N. Bhargava, N. N. Bhargava S. C. Gupta D. C. Kulshreshtha. About this book · Shop for Books on Google Play. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics. N.N. Bhargava- Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. for basic elctronics.
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To give you a basic background of electronics engineering, which is required for. ▫. Troubleshooting, understanding and making of electrical/electronics circuits/. Books Basic Electronics And Linear Circuits Nn Bhargava Pdf DOWNLOAD NOW an basic concepts of linear regulator and switching - a n an Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits book. Read 12 reviews from the world's largest community for readers.
The resistive material is of carbon-clay composition. The lead wires. This 'opposing force' is called the resistance of the material. The size increases for increased wattage rating in order to withstand higher currents and dissipation losses. The relative sizes of all fixed and also variable resistors change with the wattage power rating.
The carbon film can be deposited by pyrolysis of some hydrocarbon gas e. Resistors of this type are readily available in values ranging from a few ohms to about 22 MQ. It is measured in ohms. Only approximate values of resistance can be obtained by this method. Desired values are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length.
Fixed resistors The most common of the low wattage. The circuit symbol for resistance R is shown in Table The basic construction is shown in Fig. Resistors Capacitors oC:: The numerical value associated with each colour is indicated in Table 1. Commonly available wire-wound resistors have resistance values ranging from 1 Q to kn. The fourth band represents the manufacturer's tolerance.
The colour bands are always read left to right from the end that has the bands closest to it. The specification of the resistor can be found by using the colour coding table as follows: The first and second bands represent the first and second significant digits. As an aid to memory in remembering the sequence of colour codes given above.
In other wire-wound resistors. It is a measure of the precision with which the resistor was made. The third band is for the number of zeros that follow the second digit. In case the third band is gold or silver. With the help of the colour coding table Table 1.
This assembly is coated with an enamel containing powdered glass. The ends of the winding are attached to metal pieces inserted in the core. Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits 8 A wire-wound resistor uses a length of resistance wire.
It also helps in conducting heat away from the unit quickly. This wire is wound onto a round. This coating is very smooth and gives mechanical protection to the winding. Tinned copper wire leads are. It is then heated to develop a coating known as vitreous enamel.
If the fourth band is not present. For the fixed. Some have a wire-wound resistance as their primary element. The system of colour coding used for the moulded resistors with radial leads is called body-end-dot system.
The shaft moves an arm and a contact point from end to end of the resistance elerrient. Kilohms kD. Although the variable resistors are usually cailed rheostats in other applications. A list of readily available standard values of resistors appears in Table 1. The symbol for potentiometei: Variable resistors In electronic circuits. Such adjustments can be done by using variable resistors.. The resistance wire is wound over a dough-shaped core of bakelite or ceramic. Note that the first band in Fig.
The outer two are the end points of the resistance element and the middle leads to the rotating contact. For example. The moving contact will determine whether the resistance m the crrcwt 1s minimum 0 Q or maximum value. The construction of all potentiometers is basically the same.
There is a rotating shaft at the centre of the core. There are three terminals coming out of a potentiometer. In most of the circuits. The colour coding for wire-wound resistors. The numerical values associated with each colour is the same for all the three methods of colour coding. The basic construction of a wire-wound potentiometer is shown in Fig. Besides the value of the resistor or capacitor. The strip is then bent into a round shape.
Figure 1. A capacitor offers low impedance to ac. Available capacitances range from 5 to 10 pF. Capacitance is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. Since the two plates of a capacitor can be of many different b Mica capacitors Fig. A capacitor is basically meant to store electrons or electrical energy. During the manufacture of the capacitor. The tapered strip gives a nonlinear variation of resistance with the rotation of the moving contact. Some of the most commonly used fixed capacitors are mica.
The strip can be tapered suitably so as to obtain a desired variation in resistance per unit rotation of moving contact.
Ceramic capacitors Ceramic capacitors are made in many shapes and sizes. Then the entire unit is coated with plastic and marked with its capacitance value--either using numerals or a colour code. In the linear type. Ceramic capacitors are very versatile. The mica capacitors have excellent characteristics under stress of temperature variations and high voltage applications. The 'pots' used as volume control in sound equipment are generally of the non-linear type logarithmic variation.
The plates are connected to two electrodes. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates. It is also used as a bypass capacitor. Their work-. In this role. Its leakage current is very small R1eakage is about MO. A ceramic disc is coated on two sides with a metal. Variable capacitors are mostly air-gang capacitors.
Mica capacitors are usually rated at V. The circuit symbol of a capacitor is shown in Table 1. Resistance wire "-. In a non-linear. Introduction to Electronics 13 Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits 12 conducting materials and the dielectric may be of many different insulating materials.
The colour coding is similar to that used for resistances. To make a potentiometer of this type. These coatings act as the two plates see Fig. Mica capacitors Mica capacitors are constructed from plates of aluminium foil separated by sheets of mica as shown in Fig.
It is measured in farads F. The voltage ratings may range from 1 V to V. These capacitors are commonly used in situations where a large capacitance is required. They can be used for both de and ac circuits.!. Electrolytic capacitors Electrolytic capacitors are extremely varied in their characteristics.. This paper is impregnated with a dielectric material such as wax. The capacitor consists of two metal foils separated by strips of paper..
Ceramic capacitors have a very low leakage currents R1eakage is about MQ and can be used in both de and ac circuits.. Paper capacitors The basic construction of a paper capacitor is shown in Fig Since paper can be rolled between two metals foils. Various types of electrolytic capacitors are shown in Fig Its leakage resistance is of the order of MQ.!. This reaction of the magnetic field.
This magnetic field reacts so as to oppose any change in the current. The aluminium plate serves as the positive plate and the oxide as the dielectric. To avoid power losses. Filter chokes These are the inductors used in smoothing the pulsating current produced by rectifying ac into de.
The capacitor should be properly connected so that the applied voltage encounters the high resistance. It is primarily designed for use in circuits where only de voltages will be applied across the capacitor. Many power supplies use filter chokes of 5 to 20 H. In some applications. A new type of electrolytic capacitor is the tantalum capacitor. This is done by means of a variable capacitor.
This semiconductor blocks the current coming through the oxide film toward the electrode. The aluminium oxide layer is very thin. The container then serves as the negative terminal for external connections. The oxide is in contact with a paper or gauze saturated with an electrolyte. The greater the common area. The dielectric for this capacitor is air. The most common variable capacitor is the air-gang capacitor shown in Fig. In most cases. Variable capacitors In some circuits.
The inductance is measured in hemys H. It has an excellent capacitance-to-size ratio. A typical filter choke has many turns of wire wound on an iron core. Ordinary electrolytic capacitors cannot be used with alternating currents. By rotating the shaft at one end. It has high capacitance-to-size ratio. All inductors. The reason for the polarised positive and negative electrodes nature of the capacitor is that the aluminium foil and the aluminium oxide layer form a semiconductor. Different types of inductors are available for different applications.
The symbols of an air-core and an iron-core inductor are shown in Table 1. Both mica and ceramic are used as the dielectric for trimmer capacitors. In such situations we use a variable capacitor called a trimmer sometimes called padder. One setting is sufficient for all normal operations. Another layer of aluminium without the oxide coating is also provided for making electrical contact between one of the terminals and the electrolyte. The electrolyte forms the second plate negative of the capacitor.
Such chokes are called radio-frequency chokes RFCs. Basic Electronics and Linear Circuits 18 2. Audio-frequency chokes AFCs They are used to provide high impedance to audio frequencies say. Chokes having still smaller inductances are used to block the radio frequencies. If the number of turns in the secondary is less than that in the primary One of these inductors.
Active Components Table 1. In a step-up transformer. Table 1. The transformer is then called a step-down transformer. A transformer of suitable turns-ratio is often used in electronic circuits for impedance matching.
Variable inductors are used in tuning circuits for radio frequencies. The other is called secondary. This shaft can be moved within the coil to vary the inductance as shown in Fig. It consists basically of two inductors having the same core Fig. The permeability-tuned variable coil has a ferromagnetic shaft. The secondary voltage is more than the primary.
Compared to filter chokes.
Transformers A transformer is quite similar in variable coil appearance to an inductor. A system of units is said to be coherent if the product or quotient of any two unit quantities in the system is the unit of the resultant quantity without the introduction of any numerical factor.
Time The second is the duration of 9 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium atom. The definitions of these base units are as follows: Table The SI units are based on seven base units with a unit symbol assigned to each of them as given in Table 1.
Length Fig. Luminous intensity The candela is the luminous intensity. This system of units possesses features that make it logically superior to any other system and also more convenient. The definitions of various units given in the Act conform to the definitions of the SI units.
Mass The kilogram is equal to the mass of the international prototype kilogram stored at Sevres. In Electric current The ampere is that current which.
Double or compound prefixes should be avoided. The SI units cover all fields of physics and engineering. The radian is the plane angle between two such radii of a circle which cuts off. Some symbols. A complete list of such factors is given in Table 1. The guidelines for the application of these prefixes are as follows: These are known as supplementary units. For instance. To simplify calculations. The rules for binding-in indices are not those of ordinary algebra.
Exceptions are kilQ. When a compound unit is formed by dividing one unit by another. It is recognised. In the 1 former notation. How has electronics affected our daily life? Write at least two important applications of electronics in the field of a communications and entertainment.
Explain briefly the basic construction of a ceramic capacitor. Nm for newtons x metres and kWh for killowatt hour. There is a mixture of capital and lower-case letters in the symbols for the prefixes as shown in Table 1.
The symbols for a unit. A space is left between the symbols for compound units. The groups should be separated by a small space. To facilitate the reading of numerals. What is the range of wattage for wire-wound resistors? Why are paper capacitors not used in filters of rectifier power supplies? Algebraic symbols representing "quantities" are written in italics Write the unit ofresistance?
If a resistor is rated at Q and 10 W.. When expressing a quantity by a numerical value and a certain unit. Explain in brief.
Justify the statement in about lines. They are printed in full or abbreviated.: Full names of units. Units may be written out in full or using the agreed symbols.
A space is left between a numeral and the symbol except in case of the permitted non-SI units for angular measurements. Symbols for units do not take a plural form with added 's'. Name three primary uses of capacitors? This type of confusion will not occur if we follow the rule that the denominators of compound units are always expressed in the base units and not in their multiples or submultiples.
What is the range of capacitance values available in ceramic capacitors? In complicated cases. Explain constructional features of a wire-wound resistor. What are the modem trends in electronics? Symbols for other units are not written with capital letter.
Before understanding electronic circuits. No full stops or hyphens or other punctuation marks should be used within or at the end of the symbols for units. A few examples are given below: Correct Incorrect a b State what is meant by radar? Mention some of its important applications In numerals of four digits. What is meant by electronics? Give some important applications of inductors. When we rotate the tuning control.
The term IC. What is a trimmer capacitor? Describe the basic construction of a mica trimmer capacitor. The colour bands on a fixed carbon resistor are: What is an inductor? What is the unit of inductance? When you adjust the volume control knob of your radio receiver. Choose the alternative that completes the statement correctly.
Write down the seven base units in SI units. A resistor has a colour band sequence: The sequence of the colour band on this resistor should be a yellow. By rotating the volume control in a radio receiver. Electronics is that branch of engineering which deals with the application of a high-current machines b production of electronic components c electronic devices d fission of uranium nuclei From this information.
Below are some incomplete statements. For what purpose can a transformer be used in an eJectronic circuit? Which one of the following is used as a passive component in electronic circuits?
Four alternatives are provided for each.. With the help of a computer. When you rotate this control. Such a large value of capacitance is possible if the capacitor is a a mica capacitor b a ceramic capacitor d an electrolytic capacitor c an air-gang capacitor Introduction to Electronics 27 6.
One of the examples of an active device is a an electric bulb b a transformer c a loudspeaker d a silicon controlled rectifier SCR 3. What forms the dielectric of an electrolytic capacitor? Why is the electrolytic capacitor polarised? Name a few active components devices used in electronic circuits. With the help ofradar. While tuning your radio receiver to a desired station. May it not be identical with it. A source is. The source may supply either de direct current or ac alternating current.
The terminology de as employed here stands for any quantity that is steady.. An ac voltage can be converted into a unidirectional voltage by using a a power amplifier circuit b an oscillator circuit c a multivibrator circuit d a rectifier circuit Answers. The secondary cell is rechargeable.
But the cells used in a torch are of primary type. These ions carry the charge inside the cell from one electrode to the other. It has a rotating shaft. When dissolved in a solution. Solar cells are in the developmental stage. A battery consists of a series or parallel combination of two or more similar cells. Generally speaking. Each has two electrodes one positive and the other negative which are immersed in an electrolyte.
The adaptor used with a laptop is also of this type.
When its shaft is rotated. A de laboratory supply ofthis type is shown in Fig. Some de sources are battery. The battery used in a car is of secondary type. Cells can be divided into primary and secondary types.. The term battery is derived from the expression "battery of cells".
A cell is the fundamental source of electrical energy. When this shaft is rotated at the specified speed by some external agency such as a steam turbine or water turbine. Figure 2. These type of alternators are used in most electric power stations. Electronics has hardly anything to do with such alternators.
Unless stated otherwise. A battery and some cells Fig. This process will be discussed in detail in Unit 4. It contains a rectifier which converts time-varying voltage. Electrolytes are chemical compounds. The terminal voltage VT is -. Since the net voltage that sends current into the circuit is 1.
The total resistance in the circuit is now 0. Some signal generators are capable of giving other type of waveforms. The frequency of the ac signal supplied by this instrument can be varied. In the equivalent circuit of Fig. Let Vs be its open-circuit voltage i. Under this condition. When a voltage source supplies power to a load.
Such a reduction in the terminal voltage of the cell may be explained as follows. The resistance of the electrolyte between the electrodes. A cell used in a torch has a voltage of 1. It is due to this internal impedance that the source does not behave ideally. It means that the terminals AB of the source are open-circuited. The internal resistance or impedance in case of ac source of a source may be due to one or more of the following reasons: Let it be connected to a load impedance ZL whose value can be varied.
The resistance of the armature winding in case of an alternator or a de generator. The output impedance of the active device like a transistor in case of an oscillator or signal generator and rectification-type de supply. When we say "cell of 1. This voltage is used as a signal to test the working of different electronic circuits such as an amplifier. I 1Vs. It it could do so..
A practical voltage source can be considered to consist of an ideal voltage source in series with an impedance. In Eq Let us now connect a finite load impedance ZL. Load impedance. Load current.. This is not possible. The symbolic representation of de and ac ideal voltage source are given in Fig. When we reduce the value of load impedance.
As we do this. This impedance is called the internal impedance of the source. The symbolic representation of practical voltage sources are shown in Fig. Even if the load impedance changes. As a result. Such a source can then be said to. The voltage drop across Zs also goes on increasing. There is no source which can maintain its terminal voltage constant when its terminals are short-circuited.
V-1 characteristics of an ideal voltage source Fig.
In other words. When the load resistance becomes 10 Q These are the terminals available for making external connections. A Q. In the de source. OV xRu With respect to the maximum value. In the first case. In the ac source in Fig. When the load resistance varies between its extreme limits-from 1 Q to 10 Q-the terminal voltage varies from 1 V to 1. In the next half-cycle of ac. When the load resistance RL is 1 Q. We can find the variation in the terminal voltage of the source.
Let us now find the variation in the terminal voltage of the source. Electrocardiographs ECG , to find the condition of the heart of a patient. Short-wave diathermy units, for healing sprains and fractures. Oscillographs for studying muscle action.
The use of electronics in medical science has expanded so enormously as to start a new branch of study, called 'bioelectronics'. Electronics is proving useful in saving mankind from a lot of suffering and pain. It is only due to electronic instruments that an all-round development in every walk of life has been possible. DVM, cathode-ray oscilloscopes, frequency counters, signal generators, pH-meters, strain-gauges, etc.
Without this device, the amplifier which is the heart of all intricate and complex electronic gadgets would not have been possible. Until the end of World War II, vacuum tubes valves dominated the field of electronics.
In , the invention of the transistor by three Nobel laureates-John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley at the Bell Laboratory, completely revolutionised the electronics industry. Transistors opened the floodgate to further developments in electronics. Within almost 10 years of its discovery, the process of miniaturisation of electronic equipments had gained momentum. The first integrated circuits ICs appeared in the market during the early sixties.
Man's desire to conquer space accelerated this growth even further. The electronic age had truly begun. During the eighties, this tremendous growth rate not only continued but also accelerated with each passing year. Other editions. Enlarge cover. Error rating book. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other: Thanks for telling us about the problem.
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