Ashoka This article is about the Indian emperor. For the nonproﬁt organization, see Ashoka: Innovators for the Public. Ashoka The Great Maurya Samrat A. PDF | 3rd century BCE India saw in Aśoka a legendary emperor, widely of leadership as an inherited quality resembles the ideas of the great. Ashoka was the son of the Mauryan. Emperor Bindusara by a relatively lower ranked queen named Dharma. Dharma was said to be the daughter of a poor.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
King Aśoka, the third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty in the third century B.C., was the first ruler of a unified India and one of the greatest political figures of all. INTRODUCTION OF ASHOKA THE maroc-evasion.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. The greatest emperor in indian history. comparison. Rhys Davids holds that the conversion of Asoka was the first great step on the downward path of Buddhism, the first step to its expulsion from India.
He ruled for nearly 40 years. Most of the information about the life of Ashoka can be had from the 50 edicts he placed throughout India. It offers account of the eight years of the Kalinga War. The destruction and the sorrow that he witnessed in the war transformed Ashoka from a warrior to a peace loving ruler. He started propagating Buddhism. Significantly, Ashoka has been referred to with names of Devanumpriya or Priyadarshini throughout the edicts.
It is difficult to achieve happiness, either in this world or in the next, expect by intense love of Dharma, intense self-examination, intense obedience, intense fear of evil and intense enthusiasm. Yet, as a result of my instruction, regard for Dharma and the love of Dharma have increased day by day and will continue to increase.
My official of all ranks high, low and intermediate act in accordance with the precepts of my instruction, and by their example and influence theyare able to recall fickle minded people to their duty. The officials of the border districts enforce my injunctions in the same way.
Some of the inscriptions state that in the aftermath of the destruction resulting from the war against the powerful kingdom of Kalinga Orissa , Ashoka renounced bloodshedand started following a policy of nonviolence or Ahimsa.
Early Buddhist texts state that he convened a Buddhist council at his capital, regularly undertook tours within his realm and sent Buddhist, missionary ambassadors to Sri Lanka. Kashmir and the valleys of Nepal were also included. It was the biggest Indian empire and Ashoka was the first Indian king who ruled over almost the whole of India.
Kalinga was an important empire as it controlled the land and the sea routes to South India.
This led to Ashoka becoming a follower of Buddhism. His increased pre-occupation in the religion and emphasis on non-violence led to the weakening of his administration, which slowly led to the decline of the Mauryan Empire.
Ashoka devised the policy of dhamma, which later became famous, as it promoted a harmonious relationship between the diverse elements of the empire.
The word dhamma is a Prakrit spelling of the more familiar dharma, a concept difficult to translate but imbued with positives and idealised connotations in both orthodox Vedic literature and in the heterodox doctrines of Buddhists.
Jain and Ajivikas. Apart from these Rock and Pillar Edicts, there are two other main written sources about Ashoka's life, one from Sri Lanka and one from Nepal-both Buddhist texts. This book contains detailed reference of King Ashoka, how he sent his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta to propagate Buddhism in Sri Lanka, how he completely changed after battle of Kalinga and turned to Buddhism etc. The second source is the book Divyavadna, which is Mahayana or Northern Buddhist tradition.
It is written in Sanskrit, — which was the language of elites. Both these versions, Northern and Southern Buddhist accounts tell the story of King Ashoka with of course, significant differences as per religious traditions of North Mahayana and South Theravada. Both groups of writings point out how Ashoka was a ruthless ruler before he turned Buddhist. He is known to have killed almost all his hundred or so step brothers who could have been possible claimants to his throne.
By his order, terrible tortures were inflicted on prisoners in his jail in Patliputra.
Earlier in life he was often referred to as Chanda Ashoka or Ashoka — the Ferocious. From the Volga to Japan his name is still honored.
There are further references to his skin condition in Northern Buddhist. Ashoka playfully put some dust or dirt in his begging bowl. As a punishment for this act Karma in the next life when he became a king, he had skin that had the texture like pebbles or dust which he gave to Lord Buddha.
Then there is reference in Legend of Ashoka, how the earlier wrathful or Chanda Ashoka ordered burning alive all his queens when he learnt that they disliked caressing his skin!
The second very clear medical condition, which is described, are the episodes of fainting or unconsciousness at various time in his life. For example, when on pilgrimage to various Buddhist places, at Kushinagra, Ashoka is so much overcome with emotions that he fainted and had to be revived by attendants.
Similar episode happened when he visited the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, where, he again fainted. This scene is depicted in one of the gates of Sanchi Stupa where Ashoka is shown fainting and being held by his queens Photograph in Charles Allen's book page A large worm was found in the belly of that man.
After trying various remedies, the queen succeeded in killing the worm by onion juice. The onion was generally considered as unclean vegetable in religious belief, but the queen gave onion treatment to king Ashoka and he was cured by that.
It is also worth noting how the images of Ashoka have undergone changes in Indian sculpture.
All we have is the descriptions given in some Buddhist texts related to Ashoka's life. They are present as multiple, palpable, rubbery, tumors in the skin.
They are generally asymptomatic but at time many have in addition hydrocephalus large head , scoliosis, short stature, hypertension, epilepsy and mental retardation.
The description seems to fit in well with King Ashoka's skin condition and the fainting fits may have been due to epilepsy.
One can also speculate about his short height probably due to scoliosis and his large head could be a sign of hydrocephalus. He certainly did not have mental retardation; on the other hand, he was exceptionally intelligent.
We are conscious of the speculative nature of our medical interpretation, but his skin condition, and fainting episodes strongly point to this possibility. His short stature and large face further support this hypothesis.
The name of Ashoka's father — Bindusara spotted one also suggests the possibility of a hereditary character of the skin disorder, which is known in von Recklinghausen disease.