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Billions of galaxies form this universe. When you look up at the stars, does it sometimes seem to you that you can trace out squars, letters and other familiar figures?
The group of stars forming a particular shape is called constellation Fig. Orion, Taurus and Ursa Major are some of the constellations. If the axis of rotation of the Earth were at right angles to the direction of the Suns light, the length of the day would always equal to the length of the night.
The Sun would rise due East and set due West Fig. It is summer. In fact, this happens only st on two days in each year March 21 and September 21st. In the summer, the days are longer than the nights. And in the winter, the nights are longer than the days the Sun rises at South of due East and sets at South of due west.
This is because, the axis of rotation is not at 90o to the direction of the Suns light. As the Earth revolves around the Sun, its axis of rotation is as shown in the Fig. It is winter. Moon is not a luminous body; it gives out no light of its own.
We can see it, because it reflects light from the sun. It rotates about its own axis and also revolves around the Earth.
For both motions, the time is same, We can see only one side of the moon. The other side cannot be seen Fig. It is because, the reflected light from the moon comes to us.
Now that moon is called Full moon Fig. It is because, that the reflected light from the moon does not come to us. Now, that moon is called New moon Fig.
So far as we know, the Earth is the only planet in which life exists. No proof for life has been found in any other planet. Our Earth is a medium - sized planet. The presence of atmosphere, water, rich variety of animals and plants makes our Earth unique from other planets.
Seen from space, Earth can look mostly covered by ocean and clouds. Land covers only one quarter of the surface. If the Earth is compared with the football, the highest land like Himalayas could be represented as the coat of paint on the ball. Imagine how big our Earth is? Table 1. What about its inside? Is it solid like a cricket ball or hollow like a foot ball? The interior of the Earth can be broadly divided into three different layers. These layers are known as crust, mantle and core Fig.
From pole to pole through the centre 12, Km; Across the equator through the centre 12, Km. The crust contains materials like water, rocks and soil.
Limestone, common salt, coal, petroleum, metals like iron, copper, aluminium and gold are the different types of minerals found in the Earths crust.
The mantle The layer in between the crust and outer core is called the mantle. Its thickness is nearly Kilometres. The mantle is made up of hot rocks. The temperature and pressure is more than in the crust. The mantle layer is in semi-molten state. It is kilometres thick. This outer core is made mainly of metals. It is under enormous pressure and so hot. The metals are in molten state. Four-fifth of the outer core may be iron and nickel.
The rest one-fifth is probably silicon. It is about kilometres thick. Like the outer core, it is also made up of iron and nickel. The temperature is about oC. It extends up for hundreds of kilometres.
The atmosphere consists of gases like Plants need carbon dioxide for preparing their food. About 78 percent of air is nitrogen about 21 percent is oxygen and the remaining one percent consists other gases Fig. This layer of atmosphere is known as troposphere. This is the layer nearest to the earth.
At 30 to 50 kilometres above Earths suface, a layer of hot air at a temperature of 42oC is available. The hotness is due to the absorption of heat from the Sun by the ozone layer. Ozone is the special form of oxygen. This ozone layer protects us from the most harmful Ultraviolet rays of the Sun. Without ozone, we could not stand the Suns light. Hence, we have to preserve the ozone layer. As we go higher and higher, the air becomes thinner. This is why mountaineers carry oxygen cylinders with them.
The oxygen in the atmosphere helps in burning. The nitrogen in the air keeps the burning under control. The atmosphere allows only a part of light and heat from the Sun to reach the surface of the Earth. The suitable temperature of the Earth is only due to the presence of atmosphere. This helps in the existence of life on Earth. Water vapour in the air makes surrounding as cool. Human beings and animals need oxygen.
Fill it with water. Candle should not be submerged in water. Now, light the candle. Then, place a glass tumbler upside down such that it must cover the lighted candle. What happens? The candle needs oxygen to burn. The air available in the tumbler has oxygen. With this oxygen the candle burns. After sometime, the candle blows out. This is because, the entire oxygen has been used up. No more oxygen is available.
You can see Ocean currents are like rivers of water flowing through the ocean. They are warmer or colder than water through which they pass. Various kinds of plants and animals fish, shark, whale are living in the ocean.
There is a soft; Oozy mud covering the floor of the ocean down to a depth of metres. Many useful materials are in the ocean. Most important among them are the common salt and iodine. Tides occur in the ocean. What are tides? Tides are the regular movement of the water caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. Water is essential for all living things. This shows the presence of oxygen in air.
Most of the water is available in the oceans and seas. Near the north and south poles, the oceans are in the form of ice. Each year the farmers wait anxiously for the rain to supply water for their crops. In a bad year, there is not enough rain and plants, animals and humans die.
All living things contain water. Work Science in Daily Life My Family Ex. Printing Clothing Machines. Telephones, Friends who help Computer use Public Places. Travel Bus Travel plants, people, plants, people, growing Edible plants Various types of activities and produce a crop Medicinal Transport System preservation from Applied Biology 1: The World of Plants 1: Animals in Daily 1: Crop Protection 1: Improvement in 1: Heredity and 1.
Periods — 14 16 20 Health and 2. Food Habits 2: Nutrition in 2: Reaching the Age of 2: Addiction and Healthy Life 2: Immune Hygiene 2. Food variety Plants and Adolescence Style System 2. Need of various system sexual and other nutrients 2. Balanced diet 2. Deficiency and 2. Sprouting diseases 2. Cancer and Prevention.
Periods 16 16 10 My Body 3: Human Body — Form 3: Body 3: Human Body — 3: World of Plants 4: Plants — 4: Pictorial 4: Structure and 4: Reproduction in Morphology Feature of Physiological Plants 4. Transpiration, plants 4. Respiration, 4. Transportation 4. Sensitivity in plants. Periods 16 16 18 World of 6. Bio Diversity 5: Basis of 5: Micro 5: Animal Kingdom 5: Nomenclature industry and daily 5. Life Process 6. Structural 6: Respiration in 6: Diversity in 6: Cells and Tissues 6: DNA structure 6.
Environmental 7: Ecosystem 7: Conservation of Plants 7: Bio-Geochemical 7: Periods 14 16 7 15 8. Environmental 8. Our Environment 8. Water —A 8: Pollution of 8: Pollution and 8: Waste Water Science — 8. Global warming 8. Green house places water pollution effect 8. Periods 17 16 13 15 9. Matter 9 Separation of 9: Matter in our 9: Elements and 9: Separation of different condensation and properties components of Mixtures crystallization 9.
Periods 20 16 11 14 Atomic Atomic Structure Atomic structure Atoms and Structure Hi Hariharan, Thanks for your comment.
Now we changed Tamil Term II book. Kindly check the link. If any other queries please let me know. Hi Ramyarao, Kindly check middle part of the textbook.
Check page no. If any queries, please let me know. Hi Chitra, Thanks for your comment. Hi Murugesan, We upload old books shortly. Please Check at end of the day. If any other queries please let us know. Hi Dayanacharles, Thanks for your comment. If you have any queries please let us know.
Sir I need book back solution maths from 6 to Kindly provide me straight link. Hi Kavitha, Thanks for your comment.
Will send you link through the mail as soon as possible. Very happy to see all school books in this link.. A good work by Tamil Nadu Government.
Hats off. Thanks u for uploading books sir, please put book back questions and answers for maths and English. Your email address will not be published. The Government Exams portal enables you to manage all recruitment activities online. We add countless jobs which include categories, job profiles, job summary, Education Qualification, Age and Submission of the post details.