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They were scored in terms of epistemological level, from treating the two pieces as factual accounts that might differ only in specific facts reported, to understanding that they reflect contrasting interpretations, filtered through world views.
They found that no sixth graders responded in terms of the higher levels. However, work that continues in the tradition of Perry maintains his general findings that, over the early to late adolescent years, individuals display shifts in their general stance toward knowledge and knowing.
At some point, usually during adolescence, youngsters become aware that others may disagree with them on matters about which they hold strong beliefs. This relativism is regarded as an early reaction to the recognition that knowledge is conjectural and uncertain, open to and requiring interpretation.
In later adolescence or early adulthood, some individuals may pass through relativism to embrace a contextualist commitment to reasoned judgment, although this move is by no means typical or inevitable. The individual continues to understand that knowledge is neither certain nor complete but comes nevertheless to accept that, with good judgment and careful reason, it is possible over time to achieve successively closer approximations of the truth. Much of this research has been performed with college undergraduates, and the homogeneity of the participants may in part account for the degree of general agreement in the findings about the overall nature of change.
However, different models propose different numbers of sublevels along the way. Moreover, there are some disagreements about the extent to which change is regarded as universal or not, the ages at which shifts typically occur, and also the extent to which it is regarded as stage-like and structurally integrated, or composed of a series of relatively independent beliefs about knowledge and learning.
Most of the models appear to assume that epistemology is trait-like, so that it is a relatively stable feature of the individual. However, a few e. At first glance, some of these ideas appear to be inconsistent with research that suggests that much earlier—indeed, by the time they begin elementary school—children already are well aware that individuals can hold different beliefs about the same objects and events.
Beliefs are not simply copies of reality; they are products of the activity of knowing—therefore, they are subject to verification and are potentially disconfirmable by evidence Perner, Chandler, Hallett, and Sokol suggest that, although young children are aware of representational diversity, this does not mean that they consider it a necessary or legitimate aspect of knowledge.
Instead, they are more likely to believe that there is one right answer and that other interpretations are simply wrong or misinformed. Hence, the criteria for knowledge cannot easily be specified, and all knowing is associated with an unavoidable degree of ambiguity. And once again, the relations between the lines of research are complex. It is straightforward to imagine how holding either absolutist or relativist epistemologies could lead to a distorted view of the nature of science.
For example, Carey and Smith point out that many students do not understand that science is primarily a theory-building enterprise.
They may learn about observation, hypotheses, and experiment from their science textbooks, but they rarely understand that theories underlie these activities and are responsible for both the generation and interpretation of both hypotheses and experiments. The commonsense epistemology that young students typically hold is unreflective; to the extent that they think about it at all, children often think of knowledge as stemming directly from sensory experience, even though they do know that some knowledge is inferred rather than observed Sodian and Wimmer, , and they are even aware that the same object may be interpreted differently by different observers Taylor, Cartwright, and Bowden, Like the absolutists described in the developmental psychology literature, they tend to regard differences in conclusions or observations as being due to lack of information or misinformation, rather than legitimate differences in perspective or interpretation.
For this reason, Kitchener and King argue students fail to understand that controversy is a part of science and that authorities are deemed, by definition, to share a common set of true beliefs. We suggest, however, an additional factor that may explain this finding, but that is not considered in this body of research.
Children are rarely taught about controversy in science, so why would they come to view scientific knowledge as contested? Carey et al. Many children regarded models merely as copies of the world, a Level 1 perspective.
Finally, in Level 3 epistemology, models were regarded as tools developed for the purpose of testing theories. Similarly, Driver et al. The reasoning considered at the lowest level was reasoning grounded in phenomena; at the next, empirical reasoning based on relationships between variables; and finally, the highest level was reasoning that uses imagined models.
Like the Carey and Unger studies, Driver et al. Much of this research literature suggests that K-8 students have a limited understanding of how scientific knowledge is constructed.
However, it is not clear to what extent one can attribute such limitations to developmental stage, as opposed to adequacy of instructional opportunity or other experiences. In the words of Carey and Smith , p. First, in what sense are these levels developmental? Second and distinctly , do these levels provide barriers to grasping a constructivist epistemology if such is made the target of the science education? As noted in other chapters, in the upper elementary school years, the process of scientific knowledge construction is typically represented as experiment, with negligible acknowledgment of the role of interpretation or, more generally, the active role of the scientist in the process of knowledge construction.
In the early grades, the typical emphasis on description of phenomenology through the basic science process skills of observation, categorization, measurement, etc. In the same vein, science aspires to construct conceptual structures, with robust explanatory and predictive power, yet this is seldom either explicit or implicit in the K-8 science curriculum. According to Roseman, Kesidou, Stern, and Caldwell , authors of the AAAS report, the science texts evaluated by AAAS included many classroom activities that either were irrelevant to learning key science ideas or failed to help students relate their activitiy to science ideas.
Science curriculum has long been criticized as reflecting an impoverished and misleading model of science as a way of knowing e. Although there are notable exceptions to this pattern, most K-8 curricula would appear to at least exacerbate the epistemological shortcomings with which children enter school. In the words of Reif and Larkin , p.
The epistemic cognition literature has documented shortcomings in students at all levels of study, including college and beyond. It is not surprising that shortcomings in the understanding of science as a way of knowing have been identified in K-8 teachers.
A small literature of classroom-based design studies indicates that these limitations may be at least to some degree ameliorable by instruction. With appropriate supports for learning strategies of investigation, children can generate meaningful scientific questions and design and conduct productive scientific investigations e.
For example, in the small elementary school in which she was the lone science teacher, Gertrude Hennessey was able to systematically focus the lessons on core ideas built cumulatively across grades In another example, students showed improved understanding of the process of modeling after they engaged in the task of designing a model that works like a human elbow Penner et al. In this study, students in first and second grade in two classrooms participated in a model-building task over three consecutive 1-hour sessions.
They began by discussing different types of models they had previously seen or made. They considered the characteristics of those models, and how models are used for understanding phenomena. They were then introduced to the task of designing a model that functions like their elbow.
After discussing how their own elbows work, children worked in pairs or triads to design and build models that illustrated the functional aspects of the human elbow. The back-end developers can design the structure of the data and how the user interacts with it without requiring the user interface to be completed.
Conversely, the front-end developers are able to design and test the layout of the application prior to the data structure being available. Code reuse[ edit ] The same or similar view for one application can be refactored for another application with different data because the view is simply handling how the data is being displayed to the user. Unfortunately this does not work when that code is also useful for handling user input.
For example, DOM code including the application's custom abstractions to it is useful for both graphics display and user input. To address these problems, MVC and patterns like it are often combined with a component architecture that provides a set of UI elements. Each UI element is a single higher-level component that combines the 3 required MVC components into a single package. By creating these higher-level components that are independent of each other, developers are able to reuse components quickly and easily in other applications.
Advantages[ edit ] Simultaneous development — Multiple developers can work simultaneously on the model, controller and views. High cohesion — MVC enables logical grouping of related actions on a controller together.
The views for a specific model are also grouped together. Loose coupling — The very nature of the MVC framework is such that there is low coupling among models, views or controllers Ease of modification — Because of the separation of responsibilities, future development or modification is easier Multiple views for a model — Models can have multiple views Disadvantages[ edit ] The disadvantages of MVC can be generally categorized as overhead for incorrectly factored software.
Code navigability — The framework navigation can be complex because it introduces new layers of abstraction and requires users to adapt to the decomposition criteria of MVC.
Multi-artifact consistency — Decomposing a feature into three artifacts causes scattering. Thus, requiring developers to maintain the consistency of multiple representations at once. Undermined by inevitable clustering — Applications tend to have heavy interaction between what the user sees and what the user uses.
Therefore each feature's computation and state tends to get clustered into one of the 3 program parts, erasing the purported advantages of MVC. Excessive boilerplate — Due to the application computation and state being typically clustered into one of the 3 parts, the other parts degenerate into either boilerplate shims or code-behind  that exists only to satisfy the MVC pattern.
Pronounced learning curve — Knowledge on multiple technologies becomes the norm.