Ncert chemistry book class 11 part 1

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Ncert Chemistry Books Class 11 Part -1 (English Medium). 2. Ncert Chemistry Books Class 11 Part -2 (English Medium). 3. Ncert Chemistry Books Class 11 Part. NCERT textbooks were introduced by CBSE to introduce uniformity across India in textbooks. Here you will find both English and Hindi medium books to download. Download Free NCERT Solutions PDF for class 6th to 12th. Download Latest () Edition, NCERT Chemistry book class 11 and 12 ( English & Hindi medium) absolutely Free PDF. Chemistry part 1.

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Ncert Chemistry Book Class 11 Part 1

NextNCERT Class XI Chemistry Chapter 1 - Some Basic Concepts Of Chemistry » · Previous «NCERT Class VII Science Chapter 7 Weather, Climate and. NCERT Chemistry Class 11 and 12 books, Part I and Part II are the Bible for students targeting for the NCERT Chemistry book Part 1 for class 11 in English. You can download NCERT Books For Class 11 Chemistry Part 1 Chapter 1 Some basic Concepts of Chemistry, Ch 2 Structure of Atom, Chapter 3 Classification.

The links of the books are given to download. This is a educationl website, I Love It. This become more nice when books are translated in Hindi. Your email address will not be published. Sets Chapter 2:

However, this definition only works well for substances that are composed of molecules, which is not true of many substances see below. Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds , such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs.

Thus, molecules exist as electrically neutral units, unlike ions. When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion.

However, the discrete and separate nature of the molecular concept usually requires that molecular ions be present only in well-separated form, such as a directed beam in a vacuum in a mass spectrometer.

Charged polyatomic collections residing in solids for example, common sulfate or nitrate ions are generally not considered "molecules" in chemistry.

Some molecules contain one or more unpaired electrons, creating radicals. Most radicals are comparatively reactive, but some, such as nitric oxide NO can be stable. A 2-D skeletal model of a benzene molecule C6H6 The "inert" or noble gas elements helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon and radon are composed of lone atoms as their smallest discrete unit, but the other isolated chemical elements consist of either molecules or networks of atoms bonded to each other in some way.

Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline, and the various pharmaceuticals.

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However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without molecules. These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids , are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se. Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance.

Examples of such substances are mineral salts such as table salt , solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite.

One of the main characteristics of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure. While the structure of diatomic, triatomic or tetra-atomic molecules may be trivial, linear, angular pyramidal etc.

Substance and mixture Examples of pure chemical substances. From left to right: the elements tin Sn and sulfur S , diamond an allotrope of carbon , sucrose pure sugar , and sodium chloride salt and sodium bicarbonate baking soda , which are both ionic compounds.

A chemical substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties. Examples of mixtures are air and alloys. The mole is defined as the number of atoms found in exactly 0. For the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phase classifications; however, some more exotic phases are incompatible with certain chemical properties. A phase is a set of states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties, over a range of conditions, such as pressure or temperature.

Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase. The phase of matter is defined by the phase transition , which is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into rearranging the structure of the system, instead of changing the bulk conditions.

Sometimes the distinction between phases can be continuous instead of having a discrete boundary' in this case the matter is considered to be in a supercritical state. When three states meet based on the conditions, it is known as a triple point and since this is invariant, it is a convenient way to define a set of conditions.

The most familiar examples of phases are solids , liquids , and gases. Many substances exhibit multiple solid phases. For example, there are three phases of solid iron alpha, gamma, and delta that vary based on temperature and pressure. A principal difference between solid phases is the crystal structure , or arrangement, of the atoms. Another phase commonly encountered in the study of chemistry is the aqueous phase, which is the state of substances dissolved in aqueous solution that is, in water.

Less familiar phases include plasmas , Bose—Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. While most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology.

Bonding Main article: Chemical bond An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium Na and chlorine Cl to form sodium chloride , or common table salt. Ionic bonding involves one atom taking valence electrons from another as opposed to sharing, which occurs in covalent bonding Atoms sticking together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded with one another. A chemical bond may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them.

A chemical bond can be a covalent bond , an ionic bond , a hydrogen bond or just because of Van der Waals force.

Each of these kinds of bonds is ascribed to some potential. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals. In many simple compounds, valence bond theory , the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model VSEPR , and the concept of oxidation number can be used to explain molecular structure and composition.

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An ionic bond is formed when a metal loses one or more of its electrons, becoming a positively charged cation, and the electrons are then gained by the non-metal atom, becoming a negatively charged anion. The two oppositely charged ions attract one another, and the ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between them.

The ions are held together due to electrostatic attraction, and that compound sodium chloride NaCl , or common table salt, is formed. In the methane molecule CH4 , the carbon atom shares a pair of valence electrons with each of the four hydrogen atoms.

Thus, the octet rule is satisfied for C-atom it has eight electrons in its valence shell and the duet rule is satisfied for the H-atoms they have two electrons in their valence shells. Mixed Review Find each sum or difference. Class 3. Jan 31, Chapter 20 Intonation systems across varieties of English syllables and pitch movements falling, rising, level, falling-rising and.

Crusades 5 The origins of American government may be traced to the earliest days of civilization through the Code of Hammurabi, the Ten Commandments, the Twelve Tables of Rome, and Magna Carta, but the arguments and grievances that precipitated American self-government are more firmly rooted in the eighteenth century.

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