written books and articles on the sociology of knowledge, theory of culture, . A dictionary of sociology is not just a collection of definitions, but inevitably a. This page intentionally left blank The Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology Providing an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the classical and the. A Dictionary of. Sociology. FOURTH EDITION. Edited by JOHN SCOTT. Previous Sociologists would probably distinguish ability and *skill, the former being.
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On the other hand, macro-level arises from the interplay between from a structural point of view, a given language demographic change notably longer life expect- exhibits general patterns for example, syntax, se- ancy and the trends associated with political and mantics, grammar that are never fully realized in cultural globalization. Awareness of living in an any single conversation or piece of writing, al- interconnected world brings to the fore questions though they are presupposed by all of them.
In of cultural diversity, different understandings the case of language, the problem of agency and about what it means to grow old, and the issue structure focuses on the relationship between the of who we take to be an older person.
The term structure is as starting from fifty or even earlier. Access to used in several different ways. Language is only pension systems to mark the onset of old age is one example of cultural structures, a category itself a culturally specific process. Relevant to that also comprises culinary cultures, religious western contexts though changing even here cultures, cultures of dominant and subaltern with privatization , it has little resonance in coun- groups, and so on.
Material structures are relevant tries such as China where, out of 90 million people as well. For example, a capitalist market, no matter aged sixty-five plus, just one-quarter have entitle- how extensive and dynamic it may be, exists only ment to a pension.
If acts of exchange were to helpful, given global inequalities. Global society cease, say following the collapse of the value of contains numerous demographic realities — aging instruments of credit, then even the most massive Europe, to take one example, as compared with and structured market would come to a halt and increasingly youthful United States, and falling ultimately cease to exist.
Fields of the distribution life expectancy in Russia and sub-Saharan Africa. For example, construction of growing old — national, trans- the practice of continuous reinvestment of profits, national, subcultural — producing, as a result, about which Max Weber wrote, enables entrepre- new questions and perspectives for research in neurs and investors to accumulate large quan- the field of aging.
Skillful reinvestment can ultimately concentrate large amounts of capital age differentiation under the control of a very small group while the — see age.
But if profits are not skillfully reinvested in prac- age group tice, then the structure of inequality may change. Finally, social networks and other patterns of ar- ticulated social relationships may be understood ageism in terms of the agency—structure problem as well. Each link in the network is an enacted set of practices on the one hand and large-scale and conversational practices, and the form of the historically enduring social phenomena on the network is produced one link at a time as these other.
Language is often used to illustrate several conversations occur. To appreciate the specificity of the agency— On the one hand, language exists as an observable structure problem, it must be understood in con- reality only when actors use language converse, trast to the problem of the relationship between read, or write in specific ways at particular the individual and the collectivity.
This second. Since of free will versus determinism. Or are social structures merely the epi- associated with one another. Indeed, the same phenomenal consequences of what actors do as set of interactions may help to generate a number they each pursue their personal interests and de- of different structures. For example, a capitalist sires, as can be inferred, for example, from the market is generated in ongoing sequences of com- writings of Adam Smith —90?
The dilemma mercial practices and economic exchange. But the here is that the sociologist is virtually compelled same practices generate a network of business to assume a reductionist position. Either indivi- acquaintances. Practices may also result from duals are epiphenomenal to structures or struc- the use of a common language or dialect, and so tures are epiphenomenal to individuals. The on. Which of these structures is of interest is an agency—structure problem does not compel the analytical choice on the part of the sociologist.
We now can see how structured practices prac- This is because, from an agency—structure point of tices that are reproduced in broadly similar forms view, the individual is no longer a counterpoint to can sustain large-scale structures, but what part structure. Instead, the counterpoint to structure is do these structures play in the enactment of prac- social praxis, that is, the enactment of forms of tices?
The issue here turns on social competencies. Enacted forms of be- Babies and newcomers to a culture or society do havior generate that is, construct or produce the not arrive knowing how to speak a given language realities of social life, whether they be cultural, or how to execute a market trade. Individuals gain economic, distributional, or network patterns. Individ- learn how to perform the forms of conduct that uals may want to act in certain ways in order to are a matter of routine in a given group.
From this achieve their interests or wants, but they may lack point of view, the structured form of social prac- the competence or resources to do so. In other tices precedes and shapes how that practice is words, individuals in a given setting may not be performed. Looked at from a broader perspective, able to enact certain practices, even if motivated the set of practices that form a language or a to do so.
Conversely, actors may generate aspects capitalist market or a network of weak ties pre- of social reality for example, cultural domination cedes any given round of social reproduction. In as Pierre Bourdieu suggests though they are un- the end what we have is what Anthony Giddens aware they exercise agency in this regard. To begin, consider not reciprocal relationship between structure and a single locally enacted practice, but rather a single agency.
Structural circumstances provide the form of practice, which is to say a form of practice means to reproduce social practices, but when that may be enacted each day by numerous actors social practices are reproduced they perpetuate in different settings and may be enacted as well by the structure, making it a social reality in a new successive generations of actors.
Now we can historical moment. In very stable social groups, introduce the idea of social reproduction, which for example tradition-bound villages, this recipro- is to say the recurrent reenactment of similar cal relation between structure and agency in forms of practice. Of course, no two instances of social reproduction may go on for generations.
Symbolic interactionists, for example, Nonetheless, over many instances, people use lan- sometimes reduce structures of all kinds to the guage in broadly similar ways, and this is what it practices through which they are produced with- means to say that forms of linguistic practice are out regard for the structural properties of prac- reproduced.
But, as previously mentioned, no tices that have been reproduced many times over single form of practice can generate a large-scale in the past. Structure, in effect, is reduced to. It is symptomatic of this problem by the British sociologist, Rob Stones. In a more balanced view, the structural British sociologist, Margaret Archer. She argues, conditions of praxis, including all necessary com- inter alia, that Giddens is guilty of a peculiar form petencies and resources needed to engage in social of reductionism in which structure and praxis are conduct, both enable actors to perform actions in inextricably linked.
She believes that structure certain ways and thereby also limit actors to per- and practices must be distinct objects of socio- forming according to their competencies.
How- logical analysis. However, in her main criticisms, ever, creativity and resistance to established ways in Realist Social Theory , Archer appears to of doing things are not thereby ruled out. Indeed, misconstrue the level of analysis on which Gid- many practices, especially those found in the dens addresses the agency—structure link.
Giddens modern era, permit and sometimes require some writes in ontological terms, that is, in terms of degree of innovation. This is vividly illustrated in how the duality of structure and agency generates the fine arts, where structured practices for social life at large.
Archer seems to make an epi- example, techniques for painting, musical com- stemological argument in which she calls for sep- position, dancing, and so forth are employed to arate sociological analyses on the structural and produce novel works, or, more radically, new artis- praxiological levels. If this is taken into account, tic genres. Gid- completely derived from structural conditions dens and Bourdieu, along with most others who that their social reproduction is inevitable.
This theorize along these lines, rely on tacit and un- form of reductionism can be observed in the conscious motives to account for social reproduc- works of Bourdieu. Bourdieu often investigated tion.
Where do these motives disadvantages and subordination. He conceives come from? Are they freely chosen or are desires the practices in which they engage key elements and interests socially derived and reproduced? It is reemerges. While agency only denotes the enactment of prac- aging tices in the agency—structure duality, it leaves — see age. Hegel and logical concepts that pivots on the relationship Ludwig Feuerbach — For Hegel, people between agency and structure.
Human activity was new, substantively oriented innovations in struc- the expression of Spirit, of Geist, whose creations turation theory are currently under development were not self-transparent to their creators,. These thought was a purely reflective, contemplative then take on a life of their own, separate from the process. The fundamental injustice of capital- God.
Human self-alienation is not psychological, ism is that it targets for exploitation precisely what but social and historical, and specifically arises differentiates humans from other animals, namely from the system of production.
Marx insisted that it was human sive that it seems to be an inevitable, natural state labor that created culture and history but that of affairs. All our achievements, everything we Hegel had substituted a mystical substance — produce, appear as commodities. Capitalism is Mind — for the real subject of history. For Marx it the first system of generalized commodity produc- was practice rather than thought that changes the tion, in which the commodity has become a uni- material world and practice is a process of object- versal category of society as a whole.
This enables people tween things rather than people. Commodities to affirm themselves by objectifying their indi- acquire social characteristics because individuals viduality in objects and enabling others to enjoy enter the productive process only as the owners of the products of their labor. It is thus a social and commodities. It appears as if the market itself affirmative process.
However, in conditions of com- causes the rise and fall of prices, and pushes modity production, this becomes distorted — no workers into one branch of production or out of longer a free affirmation of life but, on the con- another, independent of human agency. The trary, an alienation of life, since workers must impact of society on the individual is mediated work in order to live.
What could be the basis through the social form of things. However, Marx- of creative human self-expression is reduced in ist analysis attempts to show that these apparent bourgeois society to the most profound form of relations between things are really social relations alienation in wage labor. Wage-workers sell their of production in which value is created through labor in Capital this is refined to labor power, the the exploitation of wage laborers.
Althusser, Louis — ancient society. He did, however, assume which is unpredictable. In later denotation, the two of which are analytically dis- works, Marx was more circumspect, suggesting tinct, though deployed so much together and so that the co-ordination and division of labor prob- much in the same context that they are often ably cannot be eliminated.
Similarly, there is the confused. The former is almost as old as Christian question of the extent to which social processes reflection on the Old Testament, but it has its first in complex societies can be self-transparent or official social scientific usage as the nineteenth- whether opacity is inevitable. With the decline century register of an anthropological and evolu- of interest in Marxist theory since the collapse tionist distinction between human society from of Soviet Communism, interest in the concept of its primitive beginnings forward to the advent of alienation has waned too.
In just Althusser, Louis — such a usage, it can serve as the title of the com- Althusser was one of the best-known Communist pendious treatment Ancient Society, by Henry Party theoreticians of the twentieth century, who Lewis Morgan —81 of material cultural evo- latterly became associated with Eurocommunism. The crucial divide that lay for Morgan be- ital [trans.
He attempted to Weber, and Durkheim could agree that the great reconcile Marxism with structuralism, an intellec- divide between the ancient and the modern was tual fashion with which Althusser and his student as Morgan would have it be.
The lexical and theor- Michel Foucault were associated. Its exemplary objects appear not as real-concrete objects but as denotata are precisely the city-states of pre-Chris- abstract-conceptual objects. Althusser further rejec- tian Greece and Rome. Annales School anomie.
Since the later nineteenth prevalence of the medieval belief that the king century, social theorists have consistently empha- could cure scrofula by touching people afflicted sized the discontinuities between the two, if to by this skin disease in The Royal Touch How- incompatible critical ends.
Champions of pro- ever, his most influential work is undoubtedly his gress such as Spencer, for example, construe the two-volume study Feudal Society —40 , which gap as that between a form of society whose sur- dealt not only with the juridical and political vival and growth depend essentially on war and a dynamics of medieval society, but with its whole higher form whose survival and growth can at last worldview and culture.
Such occa- the Annales movement: In of society still capable of sustaining a public contrast to the influence of sociology on Bloch, sphere unified in its commitment to a common Febvre was heavily influenced by the historical store of transcendent values and a depleted form geographical approach of Paul Vidal de la Blanche in which the gods themselves are perpetually at — , but he also focused on collective war and Homo economicus reigns in their stead.
The mentalities. Echoes of in the sixteenth century. Economies, which he examined the geography and economic, Societies, Civilizations, the school reacted to the social, and political structures of the Mediterra- prevailing narrative method of history and its con- nean world, as well as outlining its political, dip- centration on political and diplomatic events — lomatic, and military history.
He stressed the whose exemplary exponent was Leopold von Ranke important effect that geohistorical structural con- — — by broadening both the content and straints had on shaping states and economies, as the methodological approach of history. This in- well as events and individuals. Its work continues in The Annales approach was in no way unified the Fernand Braudel Center at Binghampton, and included a number of divergent standpoints which was founded in and whose director is within the group.
The first gener- From the Greek a-nomos, meaning without laws, ation, which existed from the s to , mores, and traditions, in sociology, the concept included Bloch and Febvre. Heavily influenced by refers to absence of norms and of the constraints. There [trans. He calls this condition the anomic patterns of social relationships that are causally division of labor. In Suicide [trans. Archer supports this second interpret- anomic suicide results from inappropriately low ation, which incorporates the idea of the causal levels of social regulation.
Economic crises, both priority of structure over agency, but she defends depression and excessive growth, are held to be a the importance of the reflexivity of social actors in source of anomie. Curiously, the regulation of Structure, Agency and the Internal Conversation TURNER the regulation of marriage has the reverse effect on women married women are more likely to Arendt, Hannah — commit suicide than unmarried ones. For Dur- Born in Hanover, Germany, Arendt was, from kheim, anomie is a feature of social structure until her death, a university professor of the not of individual persons.
Arendt was one of the leading political Robert K. Merton, though, distinguishes in Social philosophers of her time and a critic of the social Theory and Social Structure between the sciences, whose language she found pretentious source and the experience of anomie, acknowledg- and obfuscating. In an important debate with ing the psychological impact of anomie but David Riesman, starting in , she argued that denying it has a psychological source.
Riesman countered that the conflict of norms and not merely their ab- Arendt exaggerated the capacities and competen- sence as a source of anomie, and he recognizes cies of totalitarian leaders and their bureaucra- the creative potential of anomie as well as its cies, and that no adequate political theory could destructive side. This debate was seminal in de- antiglobalization movements fining the relationship between the concepts of — see globalization.
She was President of becoming a citizen in She became famous the International Sociological Association — initially for her work on The Origins of Totalitarian- Her early work was on the development of ism Although this work is clearly a contri- educational systems in Social Origins of Educational bution to political theory, it has important Systems She developed the analysis of implications for sociologists, because she argued human agency through a study in cultural soci- that people in modern society are forced out of a ology in Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in shared public life into a lonely, isolated, and inter- Social Theory , in which she defends the sep- ior existence.
In their isolation, there are pres- arate causal importance of culture and social sures towards uniformity that undermine their structure. Her work is closely associated with a autonomy, and as a result they are psychologically realist epistemology which she has explored in exposed to the totalitarian social forces of a mass Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach society. The clear distinction between private and Aron, Raymond — arts.
He was highly critical of utopianism and ically, their private consumer desires. In a mass regarded Marxism as a dangerous route to totali- society, the social becomes the basis of mass con- tarianism. These views made him unpopular formity and the ethical calling of the political amongst the generation of May, , but he has sinks into mundane petty politics.
Jon Elster and Raymond Her most influential philosophical work was The Boudon worked under his supervision. She argued that human life can only be meaning- arts ful if people can engage effectively in the public The field of the sociology of the arts deals with sphere. This view of politics and her critique of the art works, forms, and genres in social, political, social were further expanded in On Revolution and historical context.
It has shifted, over the past , Between Past and Future , and Men in five decades, from a concern with the arts and Dark Times In all of these personal responsibility for the Holocaust. Her projects, notions of the autonomy of the arts, of essays on personal morality and collective respon- absolute artistic worth, and of the isolated genius sibility were edited as Responsibility and Judgement creator are replaced by considerations of arts TURNER occupations, organizations, and institutions, by a focus on material and technical resources, and by Aron, Raymond — studies of reception and use of the arts.
It is also Amongst his many publications are German Soci- different from semiotic readings of art works char- ology [trans. He contributed to the study of or to explore that question through the responses industrial society in Eighteen Lectures on Industrial and actions of artistic consumers. Various surveys Society , and to the sociology of war in Peace of the field have detailed this shift, such as Vera L.
He positioned himself in the of the Arts French liberal tradition, stretching back to Baron During the s, arts sociology centered on Charles de Montesquieu and Alexis de Tocqueville. He took issue with the ten- , and Richard A.
Boundaries between Beginning in the late s with. According Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. While the important methodological tools to more recent concept of the art world drew upon Howard Beck. Here was one of the first expli. Equally significantly. These contributions emphasized ology. Culture and Society. It has also been explored by Ron sumption.
From their historical roots as one of the smallest cept of articulation first developed by Stuart Hall. In ance. New work. This perspective Eyerman and Andrew Jamieson Music and Social has been developed through various studies of Movements. While labor. Originally developed by the Chicago School. Perhaps the most important sociological ized by tremendous ethnic diversity.
In this sense. Although often can race relations and racial categorization. The ethnic diversity of Asian Americans has nificance and meaning are constantly undergoing been matched by their class diversity. The end result would then be a society in ies. In addition population of Asian Americans grew from fewer to strategic deployment in politics. There is no single and highly educated functions to mask their model of assimilation but the concept was closely plight.
These include failing to address struc- as Yen Le Espiritu demonstrates in Asian American tural racism. While Chinese. Modern meaning as an externally imposed legal category forms of organization. Asian-American studies assimilation to the US Census Later theories in of that originally limited naturalized citizen. This process. Most notably. Asian Robert Park in relation to the United States.
Asian Ameri- than 1 million to over 10 million. More internally the political activities and social life of recently the theory has been criticized on many this group in powerful ways. On the other hand. This was typically thought to occur among all Asian-Americans as economically successful second-generation migrants. For the especially migrants give up their distinctive cul- Asian-American poor and the working class.
In electoral politics. Gunnar Myrdal emphasized the contrast between ized citizenship was joined through various state American ideals of equality and the practice laws to exclude Asian Americans from ownership of racial discrimination.
Milton Gordon developed a model of de jure discrimination did not end until the civil seven types of assimilation cultural. The possi. Nationwide Hirst argued that an associative democracy may hold a highly favorable attitude towards a model would address the recurring dilemmas of presidential candidate. An attitude is audiences consumed TV news. Others have argued more generally that.
Attitudes are usu- than this image implies. While modernity is often defined held in higher scientific esteem than other types as the process which eliminates all intermediate of survey research on the grounds that well-estab- associations and affiliations between the individ.
Hirst in Associative Democracy: New Forms of presidential candidate. Ien Ang Watching generally defined as a learned disposition or belief Dallas. Throughout the twentieth century. A World Connected. Attitudes tives. That such theor. Likewise we Brunsdon and David Morley studied how different sial.
The Birmingham group argued without fostering an associative culture. British Cultural stud- the most vital and lively questions of social and ies began studying how different groups read political theory.
Those who argued for associative forms of associated with the Birmingham Centre for Con- democracy highlighted the importance of volun. This means that our attitude might be both highly which create forms of dependency and pluralist favorable and highly intense but also highly sub- democratic models that rely on voluntary initia. Charlotte This concept has a long. That this is stronger to weaker levels of intensity. Cultural studies. Nevitt Sanford as part of the Berkeley etical foundations of Marxism and to its re-presen.
World War II was followed by the rapid develop- Marxists are illustrated by the four major studies ment of social scientific analyses of prejudice and undertaken by Adler on the philosophy of science. This in turn changes the role of Austro-Marxism the state. One of the most influential but controver- Bauer on nationality and nationalism. Their influence declined the political organization of working-class polit- after the annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany ical parties creating a rational economic system.
Rudolf Hilferding. Otto Bauer. Public Opinion Study and for the Institute of tation as an empirical social science. In addition. Else Frenkel-Brunswick. This enabled small numbers of people so the audience has entered the center of a wide to acquire control over a large number of com- range of communication. Daniel Levinson.
Power Works. The specific ideas of the Austro. Most had been in. He drew on Social Research. Power Plays. Over three decades Austro- called for mediation between theories like those Marxists analyzed the profound changes in capit- of the Frankfurt School that posited that the alism the most significant of which is character- media were all-powerful instruments of manipu.
Hilferding argued that there had been a struc- to their gender. Hilferding sial of these was The Authoritarian Personality They expounded a form of Marxism that fruition. The aim of social- World War I to describe a group of young Marxist ist politics is. Since the mids. This lation. It formal and substantive inequality before the examined the connection between deep-rooted law exist.
Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes intervention by the populace governed. The full control of the citizenry and the enforce- ion. There are two anxious and insecure when events upset their camps.
A wide array of nation-state societies ing analysis of the parallels of these two regimes have historically been governed by such regimes. They emphasize tude towards idealized moral authorities of the in. The personality extreme form of authoritarianism. In the political sociology of Max Weber.
One outstand- cive means. Whereas there is wide con- cism — generalized hostility and belief in sensus over the general distinction between demo- conspiracies. Traditional differs from modern that is ra. Given this difficulty.
Weber proposes the con- ology of French Restoration thinkers. This may happen. It has not had the phenomenon banally characterized as the same resonance within sociology.
Wittich Among later social theorists. Henderson in The Theory of Social and Economic individuals. But if here authority is contrasted in the English-speaking world. For legitimate power. Weber himself remarks European society. The relationship between the two con. To simplify these complex has argued that. For instance. Nisbet rent expression. Robert Nisbet. The with power. This is much in evidence in the of interaction. The nostalgia for the premodern order which characterizing situations where power asymmet- Nisbet considers intrinsic to the whole socio.
It was put forward in as the In these conceptualizations. Much in the power Macht which sees power present. Charismatic authority. In this last case. They can do so. These however. This entails that they are more willingly tute correct instantiations of rules of lesser or and reliably obeyed.
This rests on reverence for those in command with material resources. On this in power are entitled to issue commands. Fur- the past. What Weber thus typifies are at bottom cultural tion. As we Weber then argues that. In turn. This is not an acceptable interpretation. If a power relationship turns into one of realities.
These establish which indi- bottom. Weber imparts an original twist to this generaliza. In this manner — see Niklas Luhmann. The post-Fordist era of capitalism is char- tions a whole range of further components.
Automation can process will vary in its forms. As a result of the historical develop- administration. Automation can be part of the inte- ways in which those in authority present and rep.
Those features of tinuous intervention-free flow of production. They convey the expressly sociological Automation is a key phenomenon in industrial nature of that thinking. It tions and thus participation in the production seemed very important.
Automation has been an empirical refe- gies of the ways in which administrators are re. European Graduate School. B Bales. These groups also served as a training and Media. He is His system of cultural production has meaning. Roland Harvard University. Roland — An important figure in the growth of the study Widely hailed as one of the most important of group dynamics. In these courses. He spent the entirety society sought to demonstrate how cultural pro- of his academic career at that institution.
This method Mikhail Bakhtin. Interaction Process Analysis: A Method for according to Barthes. The Fashion System Consistent Degree Zero Bales was a major world pulsating with signs. His entire permitted social psychologists to explore system.
In elaborating this semio- work. Barthes drew from an category coding scheme for direct observation and eclectic range of theorists. Bales maintained a lively involvement in of semiotics. Roman Jakobson.
Empire of Signs Among his other works are Elements of Semiology and eventually created a consulting group for his Bales received his PhD from French intellectuals of the postwar years. We live in a small groups was at its height. Roland Barthes Bales for instance. Jean — while simultaneously learning theories of group Currently Professor of the Philosophy of Culture dynamics. Robert Freed — Barthes. Towards the end of his career. The Prime of Life.
The books such as Culture as Praxis But it dehumanized the partnership with Jean-Paul Sartre. His follow a career as a secondary-school teacher of theory of simulation renewed the specter of Ad. De Beauvoir worked with Sartre on of many fossilized positions in social theory be. Born in Paris. Each pro. His master work. Simone — closely associated with postmodernism.
Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter. A preoccupations. Various intellectual spinoffs followed. Life in Frag- of irony and fatality in The Mirror of Production ments For de Beauvoir. Zygmunt — These works.
In these books. Liquid Modernity Simulacra and Simulation Between Class women are the other in all aspects of social life. Force of Circumstance. The notion of intrinsic value that was the a concern with the historical fortunes of the Jews inspiration of radicalism was portrayed as defunct in conditions of modernity to an analysis of the and the conventional distinction between reality complex ways in which postmodern culture in- and illusion was compromised.
Simone — America. Zygmunt — de Beauvoir. As a result of this provocative history. He held that there creasingly cultivates us all as outsiders. But this specifically Enlightenment reason and its possible deathly con. Consumption and sign value were por. In following years. His work on product. Bauman moved from Modernity and the cialization to the thesis of Judith Butler about Holocaust In emphasizing this middle level of ining its unintended. In the last two decades of her life. Individual identities are no longer de- nam.
In his more investigate creative work in other areas such as recent work. Ulrich — Becker. Individualization ive rights but consistently rejected the position of Ulrich — this approach into the study of embodied percep- Professor of Sociology at the University of Munich.
Art Worlds. Throughout the decades following the fied with the debate about risk and environmental publication of The Second Sex. Towards a New Modernity [trans. Becker pushed Beck. Although Beck is now specifically identi- work. Perhaps most popularly known for his elaborated in her account of the death of her work on deviance in Outsiders The result action to the making and valuing of artistic prod- is a new type of society involving reflection. American Journal of Sociology.
This focus deals our understanding. In his most recent work. Georg Simmel. Taking inspiration from retains iconic stature as a person who chose. Howard S. This per- work. De Beauvoir increasingly identified with His argument is that late modernity in.
Beck has criticized mainstream sociology tions. Rethinking Modernity in the Age Science in Action His Society. Park and tirely self-consciously. Daniel — behaviorism who anticipated many contemporary economic An explanation of behavior. Bell responded to the at which biological and environmental conditions social changes and upheavals of the late s combine to produce a behavioral effect. The End of Ideology advanced the notion that a vations on Man This reflected an epoch of optimistic confi- the modern era.
He is probably best known as a ment disputed the contention. Language and gestures within a social power and social stratification. It remains. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society Professionals group intervene between stimulus and response. This elevated the insisted on recognizing social interactions and role of knowledge and knowledge-holders as new the distinctive mental and linguistic capacities of and dominant elements within structures of humans.
Bell did ning behaviors. His best-known works are The End of Ideology for whom animals were machines responding He oriented postindustrial society. This argu- commentator. They are responding. While the former and conflicts within western culture. Born in depended on the work ethic and deferred gratifi- New York. Daniel — dictions of Capitalism. A key idea here was that of a quiry. David Hartley —57 noted. Saint-Simon and underlying.
This argument Behaviorism has therefore moved beyond a marked an early and influential statement of simple stimulus—response model to include lear. Factors and early s with two more critical contribu- within the organism including. He wrote three of the Heart and The Good Society Reinhard — be integrated around a relatively stable set of Bellah states that Americans lack such insight normative frameworks. United States in Reinhard — religious values give American ideas such as A German-born sociologist who emigrated to the the republic and liberty a sacred dimension.
He also edited two influential books with Work and Au- written with Richard Madsen. Bellah states that many provided an alternative reading to the then dom- Americans have trouble conceptualizing and ac.
William Sullivan. Bendix taught at the Uni- Critics accused him of collapsing the distinction versity of Chicago from to He taught at Harvard difference in the world. Bellah finds that of bureaucracy. Tokugawa Religion His earliest individuals who have strong ethical bonds with book. He argued that abstract but shared Bendix. In this way. Yet these communal themes nature of social order.
In The Broken Coven. He was. Bellah calls for a resurrection and versity of California. American institutions. For Bell. Habits with expansive empirical detail. In Beyond government. Robert N. For Bellah. Bell anticipated cultural beliefs over other aspects of their cultural certain postmodern arguments against the unitary life and traditions. Bellah attended undergraduate and itions. He labels these communal traditions republicanism — which ad- bell curve vocates a society based on political equality and — see intelligence.
Indi- traditions. Nation Building and Citizenship American democratic institutions are threatened Boston University. Status and Power masses. This interest in images accords was quite radical. Religion provides like-minded individuals allegorist.
Benjamin argued that. Their excavation was to be created external world. Walter — Berger. Peter L. Berger emphasized what today might seem tic qualities.
The dialectic the origins of modernity lay embedded in the by which humans engage the objective. The new reading of the city as text of shared beliefs. It made scholars and students with his assertion that an important feature of alike pay attention to the small but potent ways in modernity is the huge proliferation of images.
This project focused emerges when the taken-for-granted institutional in a radical manner upon Paris as capital of the routines no longer make sense in a particular nineteenth century and was intended as an excav.
The investigation of the origins of design rather than divine blueprint. Berger moved to the United States more as literary critic and philosopher. In this highly influential whereas the traditional work of art possessed aura.
Perhaps most widespread has been the nowned for his writings on religion and debate upon and extension of his reflections on secularization. Although he acknowledged that The main identified sources of bias concern the secularization did not proceed uniformly across researcher or informant. Berger was a leading proponent of seculariza. The main safe- Bernstein had experience of working and teaching guard against such systematic distortions is that in socially deprived parts of east London.
His the research process. It is less ence of the world. Codes and Control His com. The dispute arises because the meaning of bias min Whorf — Berger argued. He was necessarily universes of meaning.
Berger has revised his representative of the relevant population or set earlier thesis in Christian Century Both the first biologism and the third volumes of this series reprinted his In its strongest form.
During this biological reductionism period he was responsible for the production of a — see biologism. Others disagree Within the British tradition of empirical sociology. Biased samples are not In recent years. The notion that bias is a systematic and Alexander Luria — Within the religious for examining sociologically the function of sphere.
Lev Vygotsky — Some argue that to eliminate all remains an influential and accessible introduc. Basil — potential distortions of accounts. Neither soci. This sector is playing a critical role sciences. Donna Haraway. Environmentalism extensive networks of research alliances and col- and animal rights are two social movements laborators. They are usually built up around a whose cognitive and political praxis can be char.
Despite a legacy of suspicion. As with social Darwinism. Since then. American professor. DNA sequen- social positions. Criminality too is sometimes This term is used to describe a process through seen as a product of biological inheritance. Leading social theorists associated with the ceutical companies acquire the firm. Biological and cing. Their bio. Specific- Biologism. On the processes.
Social institu. Such cells and bacteria. Biotech firms often initi- The term has a more specified meaning in what ate drug development.
As a form of biopolitics. Biotechnology com- sects with politics. Sociologists highlight the ways in which cloning.
Such work is often human and other living organisms has also been undertaken by sociologists and other social The subsequent successful production of cloned has been drawn on by some sociologists analyzing genes for producing proteins that enabled the such risks.
Public Understanding of Science. Controversies over genetically modified foods. A number of it is to be human. Social scientists Paul Nightingale and ing in science and technology studies. Other scholars have argued that sociologists have drawn attention to both the decisions about whether or not to pursue such ever-increasing blurring of boundaries between developments should be premised on democratic- the private and public sectors.
Public opposition to genetically modi- Biotechnology. Calling The idea in certain branches of ascetic Protestantism that one can live acceptably to God by fulfilling the obligations imposed by one's secular position in the world. Capitalism A form of economic organization in which private individuals accumulate and invest capital, own the means of production, and control profits.
Caste system A closed system of social stratification in which prestige and social relationships are based on hereditary position at birth. Centrally planned economy An economic system that includes public ownership of or control over all productive resources and whose activity is planned by the government. Charisma The exceptional mystical or even supernatural quality of personality attributed to a person by others.
Literally, "the gift of grace. Charter The capacity of certain schools to confer special rights on their graduates. Church A formally organized, institutionalized religious organization with formal and traditional religious doctrine, beliefs, and practices. City A relatively permanent settlement of large numbers of people who do not grow or gather their own food. Civil law The branch of law that deals largely with wrongs against the individual. Civil religion The interweaving of religious and political symbols in public life.
Class conflict The struggle between competing classes, specifically between the class that owns the means of production and the class or classes that do not. Class consciousness The sense of common class position and shared interests held by members of a social class.
Class system A system of stratification based primarily on the unequal ownership and control of economic resources. Closed system In organizational theory, the degree to which an organization is shut off from its environment. Coercion A form of social interaction in which one is made to do something through the use of social pressure, threats, or force. Cognitive development The systematic improvement of intellectual ability through a series of stages.
Cognitive development theory Suggests that individuals try to pattern their lives and experiences to form a reasonably consistent picture of their beliefs, actions, and values. Cohort Persons who share something in common, usually being born in the same year or time period. Commitment Willingness of members of a group to do what is needed to maintain the group. Community A collection of people in a geographical area; may also include the idea that the collection has a social structure and a sense of community spirit or belonging.
Comparable worth A policy of equal pay for men and women doing similar work, even if the jobs are labeled differently by sex. Competition A goal-directed form of social interaction in which the goals or objects pursued are limited, so not all competitors can attain them. Competitive behavior is governed by rules and limitations restraints. Complementary marriages Marriages in which husband and wife take distinctly separate family roles. Concentric-zone theory A theory of urban development holding that cities grow around a central business district in concentric zones, with each zone devoted to a different land use.
Concept A formal definition of what is being studied. Conflict A form of social interaction involving direct struggle between individuals or groups over commonly valued resources or goals. Differs from competition because individuals are more interested in defeating an opponent than in achieving a goal. Conflict approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology: emphasizes the importance of unequal power and conflict in society. Weberian conflict theorists stress inequality and conflict based on class, status, power; Marxian theorists emphasize conflict and inequality based on ownership of the means of production.
Conformity Going along with the norms or behaviors of a group. Conjugal family A form of family organization centered around the husband-wife relationship rather than around blood relationships. There were 21 such cities in the United States in Contact hypothesis The theory that people of different racial groups who became acquainted would be less prejudiced toward one another. Contagion theory Le Bon's theory that the anonymity people feel in a crowd makes them susceptible to the suggestions of fanatical leaders, and that emotions can sweep through such a crowd like a virus.
Content analysis A research method used to describe and analyze in an objective and systematic way the content of literature, speeches, or other media presentations. The method helps to identify cultural themes or trends. Content of socialization The ideas, beliefs, values, knowledge, and so forth that are presented to people who are being socialized.
Contest mobility The educational pattern in which selection for academic and university education is delayed and children compete throughout their schooling for high positions. Context of socialization The setting or arena within which socialization occurs. Continued subjugation The use of force and ideology by one group to retain domination over another group.
Control group A group that is not exposed to the independent variable of interest to a researcher but whose members' backgrounds and experience are otherwise like those of the experimental group that is exposed to the independent variable. Controlling for In research, the effort to hold constant factors that might be influencing observed changes in the dependent variable.
Convergence theory A theory suggesting that modernizing nations come to resemble one another over time. In collective behavior, a theory suggesting that certain crowds attract particular types of people, who may behave irrationally. Cooperation A form of social interaction involving collaborative effort among people to achieve a common goal.
Cooptation A social process by which people who might otherwise threaten the stability or existence of an organization are brought into the leadership or policy-making structure of that organization. Correlation An observed association between a change in the value of one variable and a change in the value of another variable. Counterculture A subculture whose norms and values sharply contradict the dominant norms and values of the society in which it occurs. Creationism A theory that sees all major types of living things, including people, as having been made by the direct creative action of God in six days.
Credential The educational degree or certificate used to determine a person's eligibility for a position. Crime A behavior prohibited by law. Criminal law Law enacted by recognized political authorities that prohibits or requires certain behaviors. Criteria for inferring causality Evidence that two variables are correlated and that the hypothesized cause preceded the hypothesized effect in time, as well as evidence eliminating rival hypotheses.
Crude birth rate The total number of live births per persons in a population within a particular year. Crude death rate The number of deaths per persons occurring within a one-year period in a particular population.
Cult An organized group of people who together act out religious feelings, attitudes, and relationships; may focus on an unusual form of worship or belief. Cultural capital Symbolic wealth socially defined as worthy of being sought and possessed. Cultural change Modifications or transformations of a culture's customs, values, ideas, or artifacts. Cultural determinism The view that the nature of a society is shaped primarily by the ideas and values of the people living in it.
Cultural division of labor A situation in which a person's place in the occupational world is determined by his or her cultural markers such as ethnicity. Cultural imposition The forcing of members of one culture to adopt the practices of another culture. Cultural relativism The view that the customs and ideas of a society must be viewed within the context of that society.
Cultural revolution The repudiation of many existing cultural elements and the substitution of new ones. Cultural universals Cultural features, such as the use of language, shared by all human societies. Culture The common heritage shared by the people of a society, consisting of customs, values, language, ideas, and artifacts. Culture lag The time difference between the introduction of material innovations and resulting changes in cultural practices.
Culture of poverty A distinctive culture thought to develop among poor people and characterized by failure to delay gratification, fatalism, and weak family and community ties. Culture pattern theory In the sociology of sport, a theory that explains aggression and violence in sport as learned behavior that mirrors the degree of aggression and violence in the society.
Cyclical theories Theories of social change suggesting that societies follow a certain life course, from vigorous and innovative youth to more materialistic maturity and then to decline. Deduction Reasoning from the general to the specific.
Defining the situation The socially created perspective that people apply to a situation. Democracy A form of political organization in which power resides with the people and is exercised by them.
Democratic-collective organization An organization in which authority is placed in the group as a whole, rules are minimized, members have considerable control over their work, and job differentiation is minimized. Demographic transition The demographic change experienced in Western Europe and North America since the industrial revolution in which the birth rate has declined so that it is about equal to the death rate. Demography The scientific study of population size, composition, and distribution as well as patterns of change in those features.
Denomination One of a number of religious organizations in a society with no official state church. Has some formal doctrines, beliefs, and practices, but tolerates diverse religious views. Dependency theory A theory about the place of developing nations in the world economy suggesting that major industrial nations take advantage of the cheap labor and raw materials of developing nations and hence are reluctant to see them become industrialized. Dependent variable The variable that occurs or changes in a patterned way due to the presence of, or changes in, another variable or variables.
Descriptive study A research study whose goal is to describe the social phenomena being studied. Deskilling The process of breaking down jobs into less complex segments that require less knowledge and judgment on the part of workers. Deterrence theory The view that certain qualities of punishment-- such as certainty, swiftness, and severity-- will help prevent others from committing crimes that have been so punished.
Deviance Behaviors or characteristics that violate important social norms. Deviant career The regular pursuit of activities regarded by the individual and by others as deviant. Differential association A theory that attributes the existence of deviant behavior to learning from friends or associates.
Differentiation, functional The division of labor or of social roles within a society or an organization. Differentiation, rank The unequal placement and evaluation of various social positions. Diffusion The spread of inventions and discoveries from one group or culture to another on a voluntary basis; a source of cultural change.
Discovery The uncovering of something that existed but was unknown; a source of cultural change. Discrimination The unequal and unfair treatment of individuals or groups on the basis of some irrelevant characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, religion, sex, or social class. Division of labor The assignment of specialized tasks to various members of a group, organization, community, or society. Dominant status One social position that overshadows the other social positions an individual occupies.
Domination The control of one group or individual by another. Double standard A set of social norms that allows males greater freedom of sexual expression, particularly before marriage, than females.
Dramaturgical analysis An approach to social situations developed by Erving Goffman in which they are examined as though they were theatrical productions. Dual-career families Families in which both husband and wife have careers.
Dual economy The conceptual division of the private sector of the economy into monopoly core and competitive periphery sectors. Dyad A group composed of two people. Dysfunction Any consequence of a social system that disturbs or hinders the integration, adjustment, or stability of the system.
Ecological paradigm A theory of land use and living patterns that examines the interplay among economic functions, geographical factors, demography, and the replacement of one group by another. Ecological succession In urban sociology, the replacement of one group by another over time. Ecological view An approach to the study of culture or other social phenomena that emphasizes the importance of examining climate, food and water supplies, and existing enemies in the environments.
Ecology The scientific study of how organisms relate to one another and to their environments. Economic core The sector of the economy characterized by large, generally very profitable, oligopolistic firms that are national or multinational in scope; also called the monopoly sector.
Economic growth An increase in the amount of goods and services produced with the same amount of labor and resources. Economic institution The pattern of roles, norms, and activities organized around the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services in a society. Economic periphery The sector of the economy characterized by small, local, barely profitable firms; also called the competitive sector.
Ecosystem A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with its environment. Education The process, in school or beyond, of transmitting a society's knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors.
Egalitarian marriage A family in which husband and wife share equally in family decision making. Ego In Freudian theory, a concept referring to the conscious, rational part of the personality structure, which mediates between the impulses of the id and the rules of society.
Elderly dependency ratio The ratio between the number of the elderly 65 and over and the number of working-age people ages 18 to Emergent norm theory A theory of collective behavior suggesting that people move to form a shared definition of the situation in relatively normless situations. Emotion work An individual's effort to change an emotion or feeling to one that seems to be more appropriate to a given situation. Equilibrium In functionalist theory, the view that the parts of a society fit together into a balanced whole.
Ethnic group A group that shares a common cultural tradition and sense of identity. Ethnocentrism The tendency to see one's own culture as superior to all others. Ethnography A detailed study based on actual observation of the way of life of a human group or society.
Ethnomethodology The study of the methods used by individuals to communicate and make sense of their everyday lives as members of society. Many ethnomethodologists focus on the study of language and everyday conversation. Evangelicalism A form of Protestantism that stresses the preaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the validity of personal conversion, the Bible as the basis for belief, and active preaching of the faith. Evolutionary theories Theories of social change that see societies as evolving from simpler forms to more complex ones.
In biology, the theory that living organisms develop new traits that may aid their adaptation or survival. Exchange A form of social interaction involving trade of tangibles objects or intangibles sentiments between individuals.
Exchange theory An interpretive perspective that explains social interaction on the basis of the exchange of various tangible or intangible social rewards. Experiment A carefully controlled situation where the independent variable is manipulated while everything else remains the same; the aim is to see whether the dependent variable will change.
Experimental group In research, the group of individuals exposed to the independent variable that is being introduced by the experimenter.
Explanatory study A research study with the goal of explaining how or why things happen the way they do in the social world. Expressive A type of role that involves the showing of emotional feelings or preferences in interpersonal relationships. Expressive leader A group leader whose role in the group is to help maintain stability through joking, mediating conflicts, and otherwise reducing tension.
Extended family A family in which relatives from several generations live together. Face-work A term used by Goffman to refer to the actions taken by individuals to make their behavior appear consistent with the image they want to present. Fads Striking behaviors that spread rapidly and that, even though embraced enthusiastically, remain popular for only a short time.
Family Two or more persons who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or serious long-term commitment to each other, and who live together. They usually form an economic unit, and adult members care for the dependent children. Fashion A socially approved but temporary style of appearance or behavior. Flow An experience of total involvement in one's present activity. Folkways Social norms to which people generally conform, although they receive little pressure to do so.
Formal organizations Highly structured groups with specific objectives and usually clearly stated rules and regulations. Formal sanction A social reward or punishment that is administered in an organized, systematic way, such as receiving a diploma or getting a fine.
Functional approach A theoretical approach that analyzes social phenomena in terms of their functions in a social system. Functional equivalent A feature or process in society that has the same function consequence as some other feature or process Functions The consequences of social phenomena for other parts of society or for society as a whole.
Fundamentalism A form of religious traditionalism characterized by the literal interpretation of religious texts, a conception of an active supernatural, and clear distinctions between sin and salvation.
Game A form of play involving competitive or cooperative interaction in which the outcome is determined by physical skill, strength, strategy, or chance. Gemeinschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe a small, traditional, community-centered society in which people have close, personal, face-to-face relationships and value social relationships as ends in themselves. Gender The traits and behaviors that are socially designated as "masculine" or "feminine" in a particular society.
Gender differences Variations in the social positions, roles, behaviors, attitudes, and personalities of men and women in a society. Gender gap Differences in the way men and women vote. Gender-role expectations People's beliefs about how men and women should behave. Gender stratification The hierarchical ranking of men and women and their roles in terms of unequal ownership, power, social control, prestige, and social rewards.
Generalized other A general idea of the expectations, attitudes, and values of a group or community. Genocide The destruction of an entire population. Gentrification The movement of middle-class and upper-middle-class persons usually white into lower-income, sometimes minority urban areas. Gesellschaft A term used by Tonnies to describe an urban industrial society in which people have impersonal, formal, contractual, and specialized relationships and tend to use social relationships as a means to an end.
Global economy An economy in which the economic life and health of one nation depends on what happens in other nations. Green revolution The improvement in agricultural production based on higher-yielding grains and increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation.
Groups Collections of people who share some common goals and norms and whose relationships are usually based on interactions. Groupthink The tendency of individuals to follow the ideas or actions of a group. Health maintenance organizations HMOs Organizations that people pay a fee to join in return for access to a range of health services.
Heterosexual A person whose preferred partner for erotic, emotional, and sexual interaction is someone of the opposite sex. Hierarchy The arrangement of positions in a rank order, with those below reporting to those above. Hispanics A general term referring to Spanish-speaking persons. It includes many distinct ethnic groups. Homosexual Someone who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to persons of his or her own sex.
Horizontal mobility Movement from one social status to another of about equal rank in the social hierarchy. Horticultural societies Societies in which the cultivation of plants with hoes is the primary means of subsistence. Hospice An organization designed to provide care and comfort for terminally ill persons and their families. Human-capital explanation The view that the earnings of different workers vary because of differences in their education or experience.
Hunting and gathering societies Societies that obtain food by hunting animals, fishing, and gathering fruits, nuts, and grains. These societies do not plant crops or have domesticated animals. Hybrid economy An economic system that blends features of both centrally planned and capitalist market economies.
Hyperinflation Anextreme form of inflation. Hypothesis A tentative statement asserting a relationship between one factor and something else based on theory, prior research, or general observation. Id In Freudian theory, a concept referring to the unconscious instinctual impulses-- for instance, sexual or aggressive impulses. Ideal values Values that people say are important to them, whether or not their behavior supports those values. Identification theories Views suggesting that children learn gender roles by identifying with and copying the same-sex parent.
Ideology A system of ideas that reflects, rationalizes, and defends the interests of those who believe in it.
Impression management A term used by Goffman to describe the efforts of individuals to influence how others perceive them. Incest Sexual intercourse with close family members. Incest taboo The prohibition of sexual intercourse between fathers and daughters, mothers and sons, and brothers and sisters. Income The sum of money wages and salaries earnings plus income other than earnings. Independent variable The variable whose occurrence or change results in the occurrence or change of another variable; the hypothesized cause of something else.
Individualism A belief in individual rights and responsibilities. Induction Reasoning from the particular to the general. Industrialization The shift within a nation's economy from a primarily agricultural base to a manufacturing base.
Industrialized societies Societies that rely on mechanized production, rather than on human or animal labor, as the primary means of subsistence. Inflation An increase in the supply of money in circulation that exceeds the rate of economic growth, making money worth less in relation to the goods and services it can download.
Informal sanction A social reward or punishment that is given informally through social interaction, such as an approving smile or a disapproving frown.
Innovation The discovery or invention of new ideas, things, or methods; a source of cultural change. Instinct A genetically determined behavior triggered by specific conditions or events. Institution of science The social communities that share certain theories and methods aimed at understanding the physical and social worlds. Institutionalization of science The establishment of careers for practicing scientists in major social institutions.
Institutions The patterned and enduring roles, statuses, and norms that have formed around successful strategies for meeting basic social needs. Instrumental A type of role that involves problem-solving or task-oriented behavior in group or interpersonal relationships. Instrumental leader A group leader whose role is to keep the group's attention directed to the task at hand.
Interest group A group of people who work to influence political decisions affecting them. Intergenerational mobility A vertical change of social status from one generation to the next.
Interlocking directorates The practice of overlapping memberships on corporate boards of directors. Intermittent reinforcement In learning theory, the provision of a reward sometimes but not always when a desired behavior is shown. Internalization The process of taking social norms, roles, and values into one's own mind. Interpretive approach One of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology; focuses on how individuals make sense of the world and react to the symbolic meanings attached to social life.
Intragenerational mobility A vertical change of social status experienced by an individual within his or her own lifetime. Invention An innovation in material or nonmaterial culture, often produced by combining existing cultural elements in new ways; a source of cultural change.
IQ intelligence quotient test A standardized set of questions or problems designed to measure verbal and numerical knowledge and reasoning. Keynesian economics The economic theory advanced by John Maynard Keynes, which holds that government intervention, through deficit spending, may be necessary to maintain high levels of employment. Kinship Socially defined family relationships, including those based on common parentage, marriage, or adoption.
Labeling theory A theory of deviance that focuses on the process by which some people are labeled deviant by other people and thus take on deviant identities rather than on the nature of the behavior itself. Labor-market segmentation The existence of two or more distinct labor markets, one of which is open only to individuals of a particular gender or ethnicity. Laissez-faire economics The economic theory advanced by Adam Smith, which holds that the economic system develops and functions best when left to market forces, without government intervention.
Language Spoken or written symbols combined into a system and governed by rules. Law The system of formalized rules established by political authorities and backed by the power of the state for the purpose of controlling or regulating social behavior.
Learning theory In psychology, the theory that specific human behaviors are acquired or forgotten as a result of the rewards or punishments associated with them. Legal protection The protection of minority-group members through the official policy of a governing unit.
Legitimate In reference to power, the sense by people in a situation that those who are exercising power have the right to do so. Lesbian A woman who is emotionally, erotically, and physically attracted to other women.
Life chances The probabilities of an individual having access to or failing to have access to various opportunities or difficulties in society. Life course The biological and social sequence of birth, growing up, maturity, aging, and death. Life-course analysis An examination of the ways in which different stages of life influence socialization and behavior.
Life expectancy The average years of life anticipated for people born in a particular year. Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion. Life table A statistical table that presents the death rate and life expectancy of each of a series of age-sex categories for a particular population.
Line job A job that is part of the central operations of an organization rather than one that provides support services for the operating structure. Lobbying The process of trying to influence political decisions so they will be favorable to one's interests and goals.
Location In Kanter's view, a person's position in an organization with respect to having control over decision making. Looking-glass self The sense of self an individual derives from the way others view and treat him or her. Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes.
Magic According to Malinowski, "a practical art consisting of acts which are only means to a definite end expected to follow. Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations. Marriage rate Number of marriages in a year per single women 15 to 44 years old. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex.
Marxian approach A theory that uses the ideas of Karl Marx and stresses the importance of class struggle centered around the social relations of economic production. Mass hysteria Widely felt fear and anxiety.
Mass media Widely disseminated forms of communication, such as books, magazines, radio, television, and movies. Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages.
Mean, arithmetic The sum of a set of mathematical values divided by the number of values; a measure of central tendency in a series of data. Median The number that cuts a distribution of figures in half; a positional measure of central tendency in a series of data.