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It might even help you make some new friends. Make sure to take time to breathe while you are speaking, too. If you get stuck for what to say, just pause, take a breath, and you will feel your confidence returning. Make sure to include examples, too. If you are using flashcards, write a whole sentence on each card so you know how to use the words in context. Make the examples as memorable as possible with a funny story or use something related to your life to help them stick in your mind.
Listen to learn When listening to English radio, news or movies, pay close attention to what you hear. Learning from the real world will make your English more relevant and natural than learning from a textbook.
In some cultures, students of all ages are horrified about making mistakes and will be reluctant to talk. Writing in another language is often the most difficult skill for students to develop. One way to help students develop their writing skills is to have them keep journals or diaries.
Develop a vocabulary book Again, this requires some planning in advance. Developing vocabulary books will depend on the situation. Do you want your students to write down each new word as they learn it or do you want them to separate new words into categories? Do you want them to use cellphones, tablets or notebooks to record words? While paper may be outdated in some contexts, it can still reinforce the written word. Start with the pronouns English is a pronoun based language: I, me, you, he, she, it, us, them.
With children you can use flashcards with pictures. Older students and adults will have written materials before, so the focus is getting them to memorize the words.
Pick key topics for fluid conversation. For example, you could help them to create a pronoun chart. Another essential set of words are the 5-Ws: who, when, where, when and why.
Again, create a chart and get them using the words regularly. Beginning students can start working with common verbs like be, have, do, say, get, make, go, know, take and see. The problem with verbs in most languages—and English is no exception—is conjugation. This is where you link the verbs back to the pronouns. Pick out the most important nouns or objects Different students will have some nouns or objects that are most important to them.
Again, this goes back to your big picture planning. An example of an e-book is Principles of Biology from Nature Publishing. Most notably, an increasing number of authors are avoiding commercial publishers and instead offering their textbooks under a creative commons or other open license.
Market[ edit ] The market for textbooks[ edit ] As in many industries, the number of providers has declined in recent years there are just a handful of major textbook companies in the USA .
Also, elasticity of demand is fairly low. The term "broken market" appeared in the economist James Koch's analysis of the market commissioned by the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. Some textbook companies have countered this by encouraging teachers to assign homework that must be done on the publisher's website. Students with a new textbook can use the pass code in the book to register on the site; otherwise they must pay the publisher to access the website and complete assigned homework.
Students who look beyond the campus bookstore can typically find lower prices. With the ISBN or title, author and edition, most textbooks can be located through online used book sellers or retailers.
Most leading textbook companies publish a new edition every 3 or 4 years, more frequently in math and science. Harvard economics chair James K. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements to the content. Textbook publishers maintain these new editions are driven by demand from teachers.
Even though the book costs less up-front, the student will not recover any of the cost through resale. Students often cannot download these things separately, and often the one-time-use supplements destroy the resale value of the textbook.
If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future.
Each combination of a textbook and supplemental items receives a separate ISBN. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book. When a bookstore attempts to track down used copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the copies of the textbook.
Legislation at state and federal levels seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all components separately. No data suggests that this is in fact true.
However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. Campus downloadback[ edit ] As for downloadback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives.
If a professor chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual instructor, bookstores often download the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid.
If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new retail price, according to the GAO report. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book company then resells the book to another college bookstore.
At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the respective companies to continue to operate. Student to student sales[ edit ] Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in downloading the required books. This may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the college bookstore for the same titles.
Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of facilitating such trade. These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale and browse for those they wish to acquire.
Also, at the US Air Force Academy , it is possible to e-mail entire specific classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist. Student online marketplaces[ edit ] Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks. Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a downloader to order, making the use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks.
Unlike campus downloadback and online book, students are unlikely to sell all their books to one downloader using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books individually. Online book downloaders[ edit ] Online book downloaders download textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit.
Like online marketplaces, online book downloaders operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books even when campus "downloadback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to sell and receive a price quote or offer. These online book downloaders often offer "free shipping" which in actuality is built into the offer for the book , and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source.
Because online book downloaders are downloading books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces.
However, their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service.