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Mexico and China are other two members of G—5 out-reach group. Besides, these three countries are also important members of G—20 group of countries, which is destined to play an important role in the management of global economic architecture and other global issues.
Observers predict that sooner or later, the G—20 is going to replace the G—8 group of rich countries. As larger deve- loping countries, the members of IBSA occupy a middle ground between the developed and developing poor countries. This enables them to articulate and coordinate the view-points of poor countries on various global issues such as climate change, financial reforms or trade negotia- tions at the forums dominated by rich countries.
The fourth factor of IBSA's potential emerges from the com- plementaries between the three members. For example,. In its ducers and exporters of primary commodities and raw Summit NAM decided to establish South Commission to material, the terms of international trade have been promote the cooperation among developing countries. Also, initially Manmohan Singh as its first Secretary-General, but it the scope for mutual cooperation among developing could not achieve the desired success.
The Non-alignment raised the affected the trade, investment and economic development voice of South and demanded the establishment of the of poor countries.
The NIEO globalisation. Also, the NAM became less significant in was intended to promote the emergence of a global finan- economic spheres as its leaders looked to the west in their cial and economic order which was t o be fair, equitable own interest and survival. Thus, in the post-cold war era, and inclusive.
But due to the protectionist and intransi- the idea of South-South cooperation became redundant. It gent approach of the rich countries, the idea of NIEO is in this moment of history that the initiative of IBSA by could not be given practical shape.
The developing coun- initiated some concrete majors to promote South-South tries of s are not the same as the developing countries cooperation, which was intended to achieve the goal of of s. Now many of them, particularly the members of. It also incorporated common perspective of developing countries on some pressing issues such as opposing trade protectionist policies of rich countries, demanding the restructuring of UN Security Council or making the process of globalisation more inclusive and humane.
Organisational Structure: The organisational structure of IBSA consists of three organs. First the Summit meeting which is held on annual basis and is attended by the Presidents or Prime Ministers of three member states.
Summit is the highest decision- making body of IBSA, which deliberates upon the common policies and approach of the organisation. It also First Brasilla Brazil holds its meeting on annual basis. The major responsibility of trilateral Second Tshwane S. Africa commission is to monitor the implementation of joints projects of Third New Delhi Oct.
The commission also Fourth Brasilia Brazil April holds its preparatory meeting before the Summit meetings. It is responsible for making proposals of various programmes and schemes of cooperation for mutual cooperation among the member countries. The focul point also coordinates the implementation of these programmes and schemes. However, by going through the various issues and approaches raised by it in various declarations, the following objectives of IBSA may be identified: A The primary objective of IBSA appears to be to promote economic cooperation among three countries and facilitate trade and investment in the three regions— Asia, Africa and Latin America.
B It also strives for promoting cooperation among developing countries popularly known as South-South cooperation. C IBSA articulates, coordinates and presents the collective viewpoints of developing countries on various global issues at different international forums.
D It aims to achieve the target of inclusive and humane social and economic development and to strive for the removal of hunger and poverty in member states as well as developing countries. Areas of Cooperation IBSA has identified certain areas of cooperation among member states as well as the nodal countries to initiate and facilitate such Cooperation. So far 16 sectoral areas of cooperation have been identified. These are: Agriculture, Climate Change and environment, culture, defence, education, energy, health, human settlement, information technology public administration, science and technology, social development, tourism, transport and trade and investment.
In order to give concrete shape to the programmes of cooperation, 16 working groups have been set—one for each area of cooperation. Also, on the basis of level of expertise gained by member states, each one has been designated as lead country in certain areas to coordinate and initiate schemes for mutual cooperation.
For example, in energy sector, Brazil has been declared lead country in ethanol and bio-fuels, South Africa as lead country in coal liquification and India as a lead country in the field of solar and wind energy. India has also been declared as lead country in the field of education. Again, many tripartite memorandums of understanding MoU have been signed to advance the cooperative efforts. They also hoped the early conclusion of Pre- base. Leaders also welcomed the signs of recovery of Accordingly, IBSA has initiated many measures to global financial crisis.
They hoped that the measures promote South-South Cooperation. They also demanded the and Hunger. With the help of this facility, a number of expansion of finances of multilateral development development programmes have been launched in deve- Banks in the interest of developing countries. These development program- concerns of developing countries as articulated in the mes are likely to bring developing countries in the ambit Copenhagen conference organised in Dec. Besides, IBSA leaders again emphasised that the climate change has proposed trilateral trade agreements among regional negotiations should be completed on the basis of the blocks of developing countries.
On political issues the IBSA declaration expressed present, the trade negotiations are at advanced stage for concern over the progress on the front of nuclear agreement between India and Southern Africa Custom disarmament. They condemned terrorism in all its mani- This agreement will further expand the scope of trade festations and termed it as the gravest danger to the cooperation among the developing countries. It should be international peace and security. They demanded the noted that the present phase of South-South cooperation early conclusion of the comprehensive UN conven- as envisaged by IBSA is distinct from earlier such phase of tion on terrorism and resolved to cooperate to fight s and s because it is more pragmatic and realistic this menace.
Brasilia Declaration: April 15, The fourth IBSA Summit was held at Brasilia on April 15, and the declaration signed by top leaders of India, Brazil and South Africa reflect the scope and breadth of activities and approach covered by this organi- sation. The major highlights of the 45 points Declaration are given below: On global issues, leaders reiterated their demand for the UN Security Council to make it more representa- tive to the needs of developing countries.
This mainly includes the expansion of membership of the Security Council in both permanent and non-permanent category. The declaration resolved to achieve the goal of inclusive Socio-economic development under globali- sation in the interests of poor people and poor coun- tries.
Leaders welcomed the formation of Human Rights Council for the better enforcement of human rights at global level. They also demanded the abolition of all forms of descrimination against women and empha- sised on the goal of comprehensive process of women empowerment. On international trade negotiations, IBSA demanded early conclusion of Doha round of trade negotiation with focus on development.
They resolved against the protectionist policies followed by the rich coun-. IBSA recognised South-South cooperation as an Thirdly, the magnitude of global problems such as essential and specific mechanism for development. In brief, in this era of globalisation, the national fields. They viewed South-South cooperation as a problems have also assumed global dimensions.
For partnership for development among participating examples, observers feel that the ongoing global financial countries based on the principles of equality and crisis is likely to have more negative impacts on poor respect for the Sovereignty of the nations.
The three people and their livelihood. The IBSA declaration also called for expediting the process Summit produced Millennium Declaration which was of cooperation among three countries on various signed by the representatives of countries. The Millen- areas such as education, agriculture, culture, health, nium Development Goals are the part of this Declaration.
They also reiterated their resolve to There are eight Millennium Development Goals with 21 encourage the interaction among three countries targets and 60 indicators to assess their progress. These through various non-official channels. In It was decided that the 7th meeting of trilateral brief, these goals cover major issues involved in the socio- commission shall be held in Delhi at the end of economic development of poor countries or poor people and the 5th Summit of IBSA shall be held in South of the world.
The eight millennium development goals Africa in Eradicating Extreme Poverty and Hunger— emerged gradually as a voice of South at global level and This goal includes three targets: Hope and Despair Goal 2: Promoting Gender Equality and Empower- amidst pessimistic realities.
The Summit was attended by ment of Women—The target is to eliminate gender dis- heads of states or governments. India was represented parity in primary and secondary education preferably by by her External Affairs Ministers Shri S. The the year and at all levels by the year This also obvious purpose of the Summit was to take the stock of includes ensuring the seats held by women in National the success and failures in the achievement of eight Parliaments of different countries.
This Goal 4: Reducing Child Mortality Rate—The target Review Summit was the second such exercise as the first is to reduce child mortality under five years of age rate summit was held in The Millennium Development Goals are the most Goal 5: Improving Maternal Health—The target in ambitious programme of the United Nations since its this goal is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three- establishment in These goals aim at the compre- fourth between and The second target in this hensive targets of socio-economic development at global category is to ensure universal access to reproductive level, particularly in poor developing countries of Asia health by the year Gradually, it has been realised by the global Goal 6: The second target is to ensure universal access to peace and security.
If this who need it. The third target under this goal is to reverse marginalisation continues, the objective of sustained the incidence of malaria and other major diseases and global socio-economic development could not be realised.
Ensuring Environmental Sustainability— estimated that by the year , 12 lakh children will This goal has four targets. The first, is reversing the loss of suffer child mortality in addition to earlier figures. The second target is to reduce the propor- additional people would not get safe drinking water.
The tion of people by less than half by the year , who do food crisis of is not over and it may require to double not have sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation facilities. The third target is to make signi- efforts to eliminate this crisis. It is now well recognised that additional 40 to 70 The fourth target is to achieve a significant achievement in billion dollars shall be needed to achieve the MDGs by the the lives of at least million slum dwellers by the year year The mobilisation of these resources depends In , the Goal 8: But that natory trading and financial system.
The second target is has not actually happened. At the first Review Summit to address the special needs of the least Developed and G—8 Summit at Gleneagles in the rich countries. The fourth target is to deal com- In to make their debt sustainable in the long term. The fifth the current terms, the ODA has actually fallen by more target is to provide access to affordable essential drugs in than 2 per cent over previous years.
If we leave aside developing countries with the help of pharmaceutical Scandinavian countries, all developed countries failed to companies. A careful perusal of these goals indicates that the first seven goals are the measures of socio-economic develop- ment of poor people and the 8th goal is the major instrument to achieve the above objectives.
Assessment of Progress The progress in the achievement has been uneven. Some countries and regions achieved considerable pro- gress, while others lagged behind. India has achieved some success in percentage term in poverty reduction due to economic development. On the other hand, the countries of Sub-Saharan have not been able to reduce poverty and face the risk of not achieving the target by the year For the Bank, the major factor in increasing the number of poor people is the lack of success in poverty reduction in African countries.
With increasing population and due to ongoing global financial crisis, the efforts for poverty reduction have faced setback. Consequently by the year the absolute number of poor people in the globe has increased. The per day income of these people is less than one dollar. It is. These are curruption in administra- quality food, inadequate water, sanitation and health tive inefficiency, lack of effective monitoring and lack of services and poor care and feeding practices.
Gender political will.
It claims that without a major push forward, the 65 the session of United Nations General Assembly many of the MDGs targets are likely to be missed in most adopted the 32 page outcome Document which expresses regions of the world. Old and new challenges threaten to the commitment of world community to achieve these further slow progress in some areas or even undo successes goals by the year ; makes assessment of progress of achieved so far.
The major highlights of this report are: The report is optimistic about meeting the poverty respect to each goal to achieve the success within the given reduction targets.
Though an estimated 1. The main highlights of the outcome documents were living below the poverty line in , by the year are given below: The outcome document emphasise on the commit- people in MDGs by , including through actions, policies 3. Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, 4.
Though the rate of deforestation is still high, it has including in the poorest countries, with renewed slowed down in comparison to previous years due to the success of tree planting schemes. The outcome document describes that the MDGs have become subscribers to mobiles by the end of the have achieved uneven progress with respect to year The climate change would have major impact on also lists the challenges faced by these goals in future.
Arms conflict and natural According to this document, successe have been made disasters continue to increase the population of refugees as in , 42 million people have been displaced, four- in combating extreme poverty, improving school fifth of them are from developing countries.
The report is sensitive to the gaps in the achievement of However, the document notes that the progress has progress between the rich and the poor people as well as been uneven among regions and between and within regions of the world.
This disparity is also visible in terms countries. There has been a slow progress in reaching of rural and urban areas. Similarly in providing basic sanitation etc. The outcome document also proposes an Action households. In developing countries, the girls in the Agenda to achieve the MDGs by the year But, it is tnership of development, fulfilling the financial commit- very difficult for single man to do justice with the areas ment by rich countries, modernisation of international Preliminary Examination syllabus covers.
For special financial institutions, improving the policy coherence for needs you require specialist who can bring in important development at all levels; developing trade as an engine insights. It is time to get ready to absorb agencies and working with all stakeholders including the information and make good decisions.
It is time for private sector in strengthening partnership to achieve action ; get organized and move towards your dreams these goals. The Action Agenda also suggests measures and objectives. My effort has always been to make a minor contribution to breaking the shackles of apprehensions Whatever may be the progress of MDGs so far, it is that surround this examination. If you have some specific no mean achievement that the global community led by queries, doubts relating to this examination, you can the United Nations is vitally concerned with the socio- always reach me at atul pdgroup.
This assumes special significance in view of the negative In the next issue, we will come up with detailed impacts of the globalisation in the poor regions of the analysis of areas under Paper I and Paper II and how you world. The very declaration of the Millennium Deve- can prepare these effectively. Darpan commencing preparation. If you aim to appear in Civil Services Examination Continued from Page , it is time to work out systematic plan covering the complete scheme of the examination as for some serious Services candidates as this examination is getting creative aspirant time appears to be perpetually running out.
Only those who have rich experi- P. Darpan ence and insights about the Civil Services Examination can track the trends and spot the evolving requirements of the candidates. New Howsoever concerned the UPSC or government may Edition be about the role of coaching institutes, the fact that the changes occurred in past few years have really unnerved many a serious candidates. More so, now, with CSAT in place, those who were preparing for quite some time suddenly are faced with new challenges which put them at par with fresh candidate.
Listening concentrate on the speaker, our mind Listening improves with age— simultaneously works to analyse the This again is a myth, the brain needs Listening skills—According to data as we continue to listen. Thus we see that receiving Fallacies about listening—There not convinced with the speaker, we information was the primitive com- are many fallacies attached to tend not to listen to his point. The importance listening, we usually carry a good Thinking about what we are of listening can thus very easily be image about ourselves and do not going to say rather than listening to understood.
Listening is not my problem—I Talking when we should be There are distinct advantages of always pay attention to what is being listening—In case when we are not speaking less and listening more. Thus, there to convey it clear enough. Hence there and hearing to be the same thing and said—Presuming what the speaker is are better chances of achieving the hence while somebody is talking, our going to say is another reason why purpose of communication, less mind tends to be drifting to some- people tend to get distracted and fail energy consumed and better result thing else.
We continue to hear but to listen. Preoccupation—Thinking some- least do not listen to the extent that Good readers are good thing else, while the other person is we actually should. Most of the times listeners—Good readers may not talking. There is Prejudice—Due to some preju- we are only hearing. There is a huge no relation between being a good dice, we decide consciously or sub- difference between hearing and reader and a good listener.
While consciously not to listen to what is listening.
Hearing is with senses, listen- senses are at work i. The brain however is several barriers to effective listening. Thus we see weakness of not listening, but it is person listening has some physio- that hearing may be sub-conscious. Better listening requires hearing, premature or under deve- conscious, we have to make a con- proper training of the mind which is loped to understand the message. We have to entirely different from being smart.
He deserves all admiration and our heartiest congratulations on his splendid success. This important, thought provoking and highly inspiring interview is being presented here in its original form. The contents are reliable, upto Ashique—Thank you very much date and presented in attractive style PD helped for your wishes.
PD Year Book is also very good covering moment when you realized the all important national and international events importance of IES? But I thought that only Ashique—It was a planned the minimum period of time required those candidates having excellent decision of mine backed by my wife. When I knew that I got 3rd rank, I medium only. PD—Does the educational, petitive exams because of require- PD—In how many attempts have financial and demographic status of ment of minimum marks for qualify- you achieved this success?
How do the family of an aspirant have any ing exams. Any particular success story lucrative career opportunities in PD—In your opinion what role which your journey to this result? I appreciate you me, not having a good academic pro- Ashique—Standard textbooks, for providing such inspiring success file, there was hardly any lucrative magazines and newspapers were the stories for the aspirants.
Did you country also motivated me. It saves a lot of time and number of attempts? Name—Ashique Karattil myself are the secret of my success. Intelligent hard work will Son—Ryan brother, sisters-in-law and parents in- be paid off. I wish best of luck to all law. I want to thank PM institute of the aspirants. I am also grateful Manmohan Singh. My success is my gift to my wrestling and watching movies.
University, Private Registration B. PD—According to a recent My experience as a teacher in a 2. IPL twenty-twenty; its economics report published by a reputed survey private parallel college helped me in and politics.
The impact of poverty alleviation tion. How Singh. It went for around 30 minutes. The Chairman and board members were very cordial. During the course 5. Euro zone Debt Crisis.
Ashique—PD is one of the best magazines in the country that focus- of interview Chairman encouraged Time Management me through his non-verbal commu- ses on competitive examination. The From my past life experience, I nication. Since my hobby was foot- contents are reliable, upto-date and realized that time and tide wait for ball, questions were asked about presented in attractive style.
D World Cup Football I used to study 8 hours a day helped me a lot in my preparation. Indian Economy is perhaps the best of PD family. What is your Salvatore, H. Thirlwall, Lekhi. Public Finance—H. It covers all important national Singh and Shishodia.
PD—What is the secret of your Mathematics for Economics— success? I have read PD Economy splendid success. Extra Issue. It is very important for Anurag—Thank you very much better understanding of economic for the wishes. However much of the issues. It is extremely well written and credit goes to people around me is updated regularly.
Almost everyone especially my parents, my brother, preparing around me used to follow it other family members, teachers, for the preparation. Did you keep be someone from your town, college importance of Civil Services? People are very generous and Anurag—Actually during my of attempts? I growing up I saw many things hood my father always wanted me to asked help from innumerable seniors around me which agitated me.
And I be an IAS. However when I entered and friends. Civil Services gives me who were in the service, I decided to success in this examination and how opportunity to bring about a positive start preparing for it. I always wanted did you react to this news of your change in the lives of many people. It was a pleasant surprise. I was tion during final year of my gradua- and presently I am undergoing train- very happy to know the result. Which vious attempts? Any particular success story optionals?
What to read? How much Anurag—This was my 4th which influenced your journey to this to read? Many such questions come attempt. In last attempt also I cleared result? I really liked the interview of advice? Nagarajan Rank 1, Later I contacted him personally.
I while preparing for your ultimate me change my optional from Physics knew what books they were reading, to Sociology and throughout the goal i. Career in Civil Services? Basically preparation he helped me with his you should not try to reinvent the Anurag—No this was the only inputs. Engineering Service, It would help and lucrative career opportunities in Meeting people and to learn from reduce much effort. In my 1st inter- various sectors, still what kept you their experiences.
Retro- Services gives me opportunity to medium of examination for exams spectively I believe that I should have like CSE? Actually during Anurag—Basically choice of ground. Apart from this medium around me which agitated me. And I subjects? I was extremely lucky that Anurag—Prelims: Physics PD—Does the educational, people around me always cheered me financial and demographic status of up and motivated me. I am extremely Mains: If and do not worry about anything attempts? Nirja preparing for Civil Services and what basic guidance.
I also did find Delhi Chaudhary should be the minimum period of to be very expensive and I prepared Date of Birth— time required to prepare for Civil from my home town only as soon as Educational Qualifications— Services Examinations?
Tech Civil Engg. Board, Maha- the preparation process.
Board, Maha- important role. Civil Services Exam. It helped me to decide from the exam. Services Exam. Later on magazines play an 4th Rank score than Humanities? BPCL in as campus points that you missed while reading placement.
In fact even after and humanities. In my view both science and current happenings. Share your humanities are equally good and it PD—According to a recent report thoughts and opinions.
I have friends from both the largest read and the only Career Sociology extremely interesting. How do you find 4. Have faith in you. Best of Luck. Anurag—It is a very good maga- You have chosen a right career. Thank You very much and zine. Although I was not able to Have confidence in your efforts, your wishing you all the best for your follow it regularly as I am from talents, future endeavours.
Well struc- Subjects? Try to make your essay by Anurag—I have read PD not face any problem as I was a bringing in various examples. It is very important for science student. It is extremely well written and is updated regularly. Almost especially History, Geography and had gone through issue of Yojana everyone preparing around me used Biology from 6th to 12th which which was about the same. This topic to follow it for the preparation. PD—Did you refer to Pratiyogita broader.
Apart from that I was regular with the newspapers and magazines. List of Books Darpan—Year Book? What is your opinion about the contents, size and I devoted equal time to both GS and Prelims the time of publishing? Beiser through it. But would like to see it if I not face any major problem in this 2. BS Agarwal for various parts have chance.
Last 15 years question papers PD—What is the secret of your reduces scope of guess work so I was 4. HC Verma both part 1 and 2 success? Geography I had already had experience of and support of my family. Goh Cheng Leon The key to mains is clear under- 4. Bunnet PD—To whom would you like to standing of concepts. The subject give the credit for your success? The help graphy Physical and Human Anurag—Most importantly God in this regard can be taken from Almighty and my parents.
Apart 6. Once 8. Important places in news from all Sir, and my seniors in IIT in Delhi stant practice would see me through the magazines and some candidates like Nagarajan the Mains. The Current Affairs should Sociology provided me valuable source for Aug.
I didn't join any Test guidance and kept me motivated. What I did was to solve last 1. George Ritzer for Thinkers. Haralambos would like to give to the future improved upon those answers till I 3.
Essay paper requires you to have 5. Have a backup career. It a clear view of things around you. So Society would help you in lean phase. Pick the topic you are comfort- material without them, and before joining able with.
Then at least spend around them ask your seniors. He deserves all our admiration and our heartiest congra- tulations on his splendid success.
That this magazine is fantastic performance and splendid the largest read magazine is a testimony to the success. It aspiring candidates. PD Extra Issues are quite is the blessings of my parents and the informative and act as a supplement to the Almighty God that enabled me to standard course of preparation. In Pratiyogita reach here. Darpan—Year Book all aspects are fairly good. Rahul—It was a planned decision that I could make it.
But then there Rahul—Actually thanks to my and fortunately I found my parents were equally good number of candi- family I have always been knowing on the same side. I did not have any dates who were preparing for the about civil services but it was when I particular time frame in my mind.
So when I got the news was working in my company I saw My only effort was to improve my through my friend at NADT, my first the movie Swades when I realized performance in the current attempt reaction was: By the blessing PD—In how many attempts working for my country and its of God I have been successful in that. PD—The first step is the most How do you visualize your prepara- PD—Finally, at what point of difficult; how to prepare?
Many such questions com- last attempt. I got into Indian Rahul—That I have to write this prehend your mind when you get Revenue Service Income Tax in my examination was always in my mind really serious about Civil Services previous attempt Rank The first but it was only in when I Examination? World geography n indian geography: History related books.
Disability issues in India https: Good Governance.
Prep aration related websites. Videos, YouTube Channels. Examine some of the measures taken by the Government for the same. Probity in governance is an essential and vital requirement for an efficient and effective system of governance and for socio-economic development. An important requisite for ensuring probity in governance is absence of corruption. The other requirements are effective laws, rules and regulations governing every aspect of public life and, more important, an effective and fair implementation of those laws, etc.
Indeed, a proper, fair and effective enforcement of law is a facet of discipline. Unfortunately for India, discipline is disappearing fast from public life and without discipline, as the Scandinavian economist- sociologist, Gunnyar Myrdal, has pointed out, no real progress is possible.
Discipline implies inter alia public and private morality and a sense of honesty. While in the West a man who rises to positions of higher authority develops greater respect for laws, the opposite is true in our country. Here, the mark of a person holding high position is the ease with which he can ignore the laws and regulations. We are being swamped by a culture of indiscipline and untruth; morality, both public and private, is at a premium.
This paper explores whether some legislative measures can be designed to ensure probity in governance. It is true that instilling a sense of discipline among the citizens is more the function of the society, its leaders, political parties and public figures and less a matter which can be legislated upon.
Even so, things have come to such a pass that measures need to be contemplated. Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends. Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organizations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit. Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example. Critically examine how differently the British and the nationalist sources analysed the sepoy revolt. Savarkar who was a revolutionary turned communist and was know as father of hindutva, describes revolt as the first national war of independence. The institution of the governor has been sidelined in the administering of tribal areas despite clear constitutional guidelines to the contrary.
In the light of some of recent related events, critically comment on the statement. The Constitution of India, through Article , has mandated the Governor of a State with wide-ranging powers for the administration of tribal areas under the Fifth and Sixth Schedule.
The governors of the 9 states which contain Scheduled Areas, are required to make an annual report to the President regarding the administration of the Scheduled Areas of his respective state, on whose basis the Union can direct the state to execute developmental measures for such areas.
Year was pivotal in the relationship between India and Russia. Examine why and also throw light on how relationship between two countries has evolved since.
Partnership in Arctic, siberia and sakhalin oil and gas fields,along with Kudankulam nuclear power plant in Tamil Nadu. Critically discuss the need for making the right to health a fundamental right in India. Key facts. The WHO Constitution enshrines the highest attainable standard of health as a fundamental right of every human being.
The right to health includes access to timely, acceptable, and affordable health care of appropriate quality. Yet, about million people globally suffer financial catastrophe annually, and million are pushed below the poverty line as a result of health care expenditure.
The right to health means that States must generate conditions in which everyone can be as healthy as possible. It does not mean the right to be healthy.
Vulnerable and marginalized groups in societies tend to bear an undue proportion of health problems. Problems being a. Number of personnel is very less. Quality of service is also poor. Ethics article. Educational article. Politics article. Career article. Pratiyogita Darpan September Official Link: Check here.
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