Organisational Behaviour 1st Semester Study Materials & Books. 1. MBA-I Semester. Paper Code: MBAC Management Concepts & Organisational Behaviour. Unit – I. Nature of Management - Social Responsibili Ties of. MBA 1s sem Organisational Behaviour Notes. 1. Compiled and shared by Suman Poudel 1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND LEADERSHIP.
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M.B.A. FIRST SEMESTER. Paper - V. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR. Syllabus Management of Organizational Behaviour Indian Edition, By Paul Hersey Kenneth. . They were first published in the book form under the title Administration. The book is written in a simple language supported by case at the end of the It is not only useful to students of MBA but also to the students of MA dimentions of organizational behaviour have been included in Part 2. It is really challenging to manage organisational behaviour in good as well as This book will provide an opportunity for reader to look inside.
We already identified the affective c0mp0nent 0f her attitude t0wards snakes - fear and anxiety. H0w d0 y0u think she behaves when it c0mes t0 snakes? M0st likely, she av0ids them whenever p0ssible. If she d0es see 0ne, she pr0bably screams 0r cries. Cognitive Component- The third and final c0mp0nent 0f an attitude is the c0gnitive c0mp0nent, and it refers t0 the th0ughts and beliefs 0ne has ab0ut an attitude 0bject.
We've already determined that Alice av0ids snakes and is scared when she is exp0sed t0 them. But, what d0es she think ab0ut snakes? It's likely she believes that all snakes are danger0us and gr0ss. Function of Attitude: : Adjustment Function - The adjustment functi0n directs pe0ple t0ward pleasurable 0r rewarding 0bjects and away fr0m unpleasant, undesirable 0nes.
It serves the utilitarian c0ncept 0f maximizing reward and minimizing punishment. Ego Defensive Function - Attitudes firmed t0 pr0tect the eg0 0r self-image fr0m threats help fulfil the eg0 defensive functi0n. Actually many 0utward expressi0ns 0f such attitudes reflect the 0pp0site 0f what the pers0n perceives him t0 be. Value expression Function - Whereas eg0 defensive attitudes are f0rmed t0 pr0tect a pers0ns self-image, value expressive attitudes enable the expressi0n 0f the pers0ns centrally held values.
Theref0re c0nsumers ad0pt certain attitudes in an eff0rt t0 translate their values int0 s0mething m0re tangible and easily expressed. Knowledge Function - Humans have a need f0r a structured and 0rderly w0rld, and theref0re they seek c0nsistency stability definiti0n and understanding. In additi0n, the need t0 kn0w tends t0 be specific.
Write a brief note on Contingency Theories of Leadership. Answer:- Leadership is the ability 0f a c0mpany's management t0 set and achieve challenging g0als, take swift and decisive acti0n, 0utperf0rm the c0mpetiti0n, and inspire 0thers t0 perf0rm well. It is t0ugh t0 place a value 0n leadership 0r 0ther qualitative aspects 0f a c0mpany, c0mpared t0 quantitative metrics that are c0mm0nly tracked and much easier t0 c0mpare between c0mpanies.
Contingency Theories of Leadership: 1. Fiedlers Contingency Theory: This the0ry puts f0rth the idea that effective leadership hinges n0t 0nly 0n the style used by the leader, but als0 0n the c0ntr0l held 0ver the situati0n. In 0rder t0 succeed, there must be str0ng leader-member relati0ns. Leaders must als0 present tasks clearly and with g0als and pr0cedures 0utlined. They need t0 p0ssess the ability t0 hand 0ut punishments and rewards, as well. This particular the0ry 0nly fits situati0ns where gr0ups are cl0sely supervised and n0t team-based.
It als0 uses a least preferred c0-w0rker LPC scale t0 help determine the type 0f w0rker the leader least likes w0rking with.
Situational Leadership: More formally called the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory, this model focuses on leadership style and the maturity of those being led.
The theory puts forth the idea that leadership styles hinge on four behaviours: telling, selling, participating and delegating.
The maturity levels range from an incompetence or unwillingness to perform the task, to a willingness and ability to perform. The idea is that a successful leader will adapt leadership techniques to fit the maturity level of the group in question on a situational basis. Path-Goal Theory: This theory combines two popular theories goal-setting and expectancy into one.
It puts forth the idea that effective leaders help those in their direction attain their goals. Under this theory, leaders have the responsibility of making sure their subordinates have the support and information required to achieve the goals set forth. Essentially, this theory holds that effective leaders create clear paths to help their subordinates achieve goals and that they work to remove obstacles that stand in the way.
Decision-Making Theory: Also known as the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-Making Model of Leadership, it puts forth the idea that effective leaders size up situations, assess them and then determine how much support the group will give toward the effort, adjusting style of leadership to fit.
While contingency models diverge on some points, they all share a common thread. Named after automobile mogul Henry Ford , the method relied on the standardization of production through the use of assembly lines.
This allowed unskilled workers to produce complex products efficiently. Sorenson later clarified that Fordism developed independently of Taylor. The success of the scientific method and Fordism resulted in the widespread adoption of these methods. In the s, the Hawthorne Works Western Electric factory commissioned the first of what was to become known as the Hawthorne Studies. These studies initially adhered to the traditional scientific method, but also investigated whether workers would be more productive with higher or lower lighting levels.
The results showed that regardless of lighting levels, when workers were being studied, productivity increased, but when the studies ended, worker productivity would return to normal.
In following experiments, Elton Mayo concluded that job performance and the so-called Hawthorne Effect was strongly correlated to social relationships and job content. These theories underline employee motivation, work performance , and job satisfaction. A micro approach to the eld emphasises the rst two units of analysis and it stresses topics such as personality and individual differences, employee attitudes and behaviour motivation, group formation and group decision-making. The macro or big-picture approach addresses the organisation as the primary unit of analysis.
Here the topics of organisational structure, design, culture, climate and change are addressed. Both the micro and macro perspectives have their roots in the behavioural and social sciences of psychology, sociology, economics, political science, anthropology and social psychology.
The eld of OB makes extensive use of theories to explain the behaviour of organisational participants. Throughout this module and all the others in the organisational behaviour course there will be extensive explanation of behavioural theories that will be grounded in managerial examples and organisational cases. What is the Relationship of Management to Organisational Behaviour? The traditional eld of management is dened as the process of planning, organising, leading, and controlling the human, material and nancial resources of an organisation.
Management is best viewed as a process which is employed by individuals managers who are responsible for achieving organisational objectives through people. Managers are individuals who achieve results by supervising and motivating people in work organisations. Newer denitions of management have de-emphasised the activities approach suggested above.
These more recent views of management focus more on the roles of coaching, integrating, advocating, tracking forms of unit performance and allocating resources among more autonomous employees or among their self-directed teams. They will be discussed in the next section.
A signicant relationship exists between management and organisational behaviour. Organisational behaviour is an applied discipline which attempts to explain behaviour in organisations in terms of valid theories. Many of these theories address problems which managers face on a regular basis, for example motivation of subordinates, managing effective performance, delivering superior customer service, coaching and integrating the work of self-managed teams and creating reward systems that recognise individual achievement in an environment of employee empowerment which uses self-directed teams.
Managers are held accountable for achieving goals in these areas. As a consequence, they often look for theories which help them interpret organisational events and processes in behavioural terms. The eld of organisational behaviour contributes knowledge in critical areas important to any manager.
So, part of the answer to the question above is that organisational behaviour is concerned with describing organisational phenomena while management is a professional discipline which stresses applied skills.
One of the most basic skills needed by managers is problem-solving. Supervisors and managers are responsible for the work of the organisation. They do not directly produce specic goods and services. Instead, they supervise the work of subordinates who do produce products and services. A managers job has three basic components. They are: A conceptual component concerned with the development of new systems and methods of operation.
An example would be improving a pricing system to provide salesmen with more up-to-date pricing information. A human component concerned with employee welfare. Examples in this area include setting a programme to assist troubled employees, and designing an employee health programme to reduce insurance costs.
The amount of time managers spend in these activities is a function of their level in the organisational hierarchy. Generally speaking, technical work occupies most of the time of rst-line supervisors. They spend far less time at conceptual and human work. In the middle management level, conceptual work-load and human work-load increase while technical work-loads diminish. Top managers spend the bulk of their time engaged in conceptual and human work.
Management and Technical Problem-Solving Virtually all organisations want managers and employees to be technical problemsolvers in the areas of product and service quality improvement. Managers are promoted almost always on their ability to resolve complex technical issues, e.
Organisations often promote on the basis of technical work expertise alone. Managers emphasise the acquisition of technical skills in their careers because they know that organisations will reward them for these abilities. This can create a temptation to focus on those situations which demand technical work skills. Success in entry-level managerial positions is almost exclusively dened in technical terms. If managers demonstrate conceptual skills as well, their promotion prospects are greatly enhanced.
The missing ingredient in the skill mix for many managers is skill in the human component of managerial work. The problems caused by poor people skills are becoming increasingly evident to managers. It is no longer sufcient to be skilful only in conceptual and technical work.
Increasingly, organisations expect their managers to demonstrate well-developed skills in the management of human resources. This practical need creates a wide bridge between the elds of organisational behaviour and management. New Perspectives on the Managers Job As we have noted, the key concept in the managers job is getting things done through people.
In organisations of the twenty-rst century, the managers job will evolve from an authority-derived issuer and interpreter of rules and orders to creating an entrepreneurial work climate that facilitates teamwork and employee empowerment.
When studying what managers do, Professor Henry Mintzberg found that the managers day is broken up into a fragmented collection of brief episodes.
In his research, he found that only ve per cent of a managers time was spent on tasks lasting more than one hour.
Just what are the fragmented tasks and activities performed by managers on a daily basis? In large surveys of thousands of managers and executives, respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of 57 different managerial and executive duties. Analysis of the results suggests seven basic features to the managers job: Instructing subordinates teaching and training.
Representing ones staff representation and advocacy. Managing group performance facilitation. Planning and allocating resources decision-making. Co-ordinating interdependent groups collaboration. Monitoring the business environment scanning.
These seven managerial tasks are common to all management levels in companies. The perceived importance of each task and the amount of time spent by managers on the tasks at different organisational levels vary substantially. Researchers found that tasks 1 and 2 are more relevant to lower-level supervisors, tasks 3, 4 and 5 capture the time of middle managers and tasks 6 and 7 monopolise the time of senior executives.
Said another way, managers and executives perform the same tasks but with different emphasis as the level of organisational hierarchy shifts. The workplace of tomorrow will be transformed to achieve greater speed, efciency, responsiveness and exibility. Organisational control structures emphasising command and control are giving way to those which stress participative decision systems and employee empowerment.
Table 1. The shifts shown in the table are on-going and evident in large and small companies engaged in domestic and global competition. Managers challenges in the twenty-rst century Past challenges Give orders to subordinates and control their behaviour Reduce these costs by hiring workers with requisite skills Future challenges Encourage the development of subordinates and their work teams Training and employee development are continuous to achieve the goal of a exible and cross-trained work force Merit-based individual and team contributions to competitive advantage Technical, interpersonal and organisational expertise Diffusion-based so that information goes rapidly to where the decision has to be made Team-based and participative Embrace change and nd ways to improve strategic, competitive processes.
The speed of change in the managers job as shown in Table 1. Companies must deal increasingly with matters of work-force diversity, work-force skills and training and work-force values and beliefs. Less restrictive labour regulations and immigration policies will create work-forces with employees of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. These diverse work-forces will have employees who differ by age, gender, life-style preference and personal and religious values.
Their formal educations may not have adequately prepared them for the demands of new technologies and jobs with rapidly changing skill requirements. The successful managers in the twenty-rst century understand diversity and know how to optimise the t between employees with diverse needs and expectations and their jobs and work groups. Customer expectations are changing. Now and in the future customers will only support companies which deliver high-quality goods and services at the best price.
The age of total quality management is here and companies that do not adhere to its principles will disappear. The successful twentyrst century manager understands the new discipline created by continuous improvement TQM and he develops in his subordinates the commitment to seek continuous improvement in products and customer services.
The competent TQM-focused manager realises that the fundamental principle of TQM is a relentless search for ways to increase the organisations ability to add value to products and services from the customers point of view. Organisations are changing.
Eroding trade barriers and instantaneous capital ows greatly increase competition and these forces prod companies to Edinburgh Business School Organisational Behaviour.
Thus, they downsize, reengineer, form strategic alliances, alter their organisational structures, try to compete globally, vertically integrate backward and forward and embrace new technologies and information systems. They press their work-forces for performance and productivity gains and they expect all employees to be empowered and to nd creative solutions to vexing organisational problems.
These complex forces tear away the traditional denition of the managers job and they create new demands on managers to be creative, resourceful, inspiring, facilitative and collaborative. When managers are interviewed about the problems they face, they invariably turn to annoying issues in human work.
The quotes which follow are fairly typical. A manager of special events: My employees wont give that extra ve per cent when a crisis occurs on the convention oor. A sales manager: My sales staff is constantly making errors in quoting prices and delivering service.
How can I get them to be more customer focused? A union ofcial: We no longer have a membership who are committed to union values. They carry their cards, and thats all. A marketing manager: My employees refuse to work with the fellows from production. They believe production managers are only interested in production quotas and inventory.
Their lack of a customer orientation is causing us severe problems in our product warranties. The problems noted above are aptly referred to as people problems. They represent opportunities for managers to apply knowledge of organisational behaviour in their jobs.
The solution to such problems is management responsibility and it is the focus of on-going research in organisational behaviour.
Managers make important decisions which inuence organisations and their employees on a regular basis. Making high-quality decisions depends on a working knowledge of organisational behaviour theories for the following reasons: As a manager, you should use objective methods to attack problems related to the needs of employees and the interests of the organisation; these often conict. Knowledge of behavioural theories helps you understand new developments in the eld of organisational behaviour.
You must be an educated consumer of new developments which might improve or rene your managerial abilities. An understanding of behavioural theories helps you to evaluate effectively the proposed solutions to behavioural problems in organisations. Just as you need knowledge of production and control systems, you need also a knowledge of behavioural theories to evaluate information related to how employees and organisations act.
Making Sense of Human Behaviour in Organisations Kurt Lewin has postulated that human behaviour is a function of the person and the environment: The SOBC model amplies this simple idea and provides us with a mechanism for systematically considering human behaviour in organisations. SOBC is an acronym where S represents the stimulus situation which includes such things as light, sounds, job demands, supervisors, coworkers characteristics and equipment.
O organism refers to the characteristics of the person including personality, needs, attitudes, values and intentions. B refers to the persons behavioural responses or actions in the situation under consideration. Finally, C represents the consequences or outcomes associated with the behavioural responses.
The action sequence is illustrated in Figure 1. All sensations from the environment which trigger human perception. In organisational behaviour these include all features of the work environment which activate employee behaviour. The finite capacities of the individual which are governed by heredity, maturity and biological needs.
These capacities also include knowledge, skills, attitudes, intentions, sentiments and values. Overt behaviours and actions such as performance or emotional responses and conceptual activities which are apparent only to the individual.
The outcomes of behaviour and performance such as recognition and need satisfaction. The outcomes represent the activity triggered in the environment by the behaviours under study.
The SOBC model is a micro model in that it species a sequence for understanding the behaviour of individuals. It does suggest that differences in performance are a function of numerous factors. Managers are concerned with an employees performance behaviour.
They try to inuence performance through direction and guidance. Frequently managers ask an employee to attempt a trial run before the actual task is attempted. Additionally, after a task is completed, the manager will review the employees performance to provide constructive feedback.
For every employee action there are reactions at the managerial and environmental levels. To understand the interplay between managers and their organisations and employees, it is necessary to characterise the difference between employee needs and organisational productivity.
Dening Employee Needs and Organisational Productivity As the organisations we live and work in become more complex, we need new knowledge about how they evolve and change. This knowledge can help us understand the conditions which create organisational survival, growth and decline. The two most pressing issues governing organisational success or failure are the needs of organisational members and organisational productivity.
Some examples of employee needs of organisational participants are job satisfaction, adequate pay and fringe benets and safe working conditions. Organisational productivity refers to the production or output of goods and services with the least expenditure of resources. To become a well-rounded manager, you must develop an objective understanding of how the organisations work-force can be a source of sustainable competitive advantage.
Your management philosophy would be incomplete without values which reect how work can be made more meaningful and challenging. To achieve this understanding, you must understand the pivotal role of work in your life and the lives of your colleagues and subordinates Achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage based on the quality of a companys work-force requires managers to appreciate and respect employees.
In our study of organisational behaviour, we shall examine many themes that bear on the nature of competitive advantage obtained through employment practices and organisational processes. At the centre of all of these practices and processes is the undiminishing importance of respect for employees. The eld of organisational behaviour focuses heavily on the connection between employee behaviour, attitudes and the productivity of the organisation.
Consider the following example: Ren is a recently naturalised French citizen. He emigrated to France nine years e ago. For four years, he has worked for a distribution rm while he has attended the technical institute at night. He will graduate in May with a degree in technical studies. His superior has only praise for Ren s work. Indeed, Ren s business e e abilities are often singled out because he has found ways to save his employer money through more efcient work methods.
His most recent innovation is a dispatching system which uses the drivers knowledge of routes to save delivery time. The drivers are excited about the new plan because it allows them to be home on weekends on a more regular basis.
The centres manager is particularly pleased because the plan saves money due to lower overtime pay, fuel and maintenance costs. The manager hopes to keep Ren after he graduates, and there is a good e chance that he will be offered a promotion. The example demonstrates the rms joint concern for employee needs more satised drivers who may be motivated to do a better job of deliveries and organisational productivity improved dispatching system.
Organisational behaviour stresses productivity gains from the standpoint of employment practices and organisational processes.
Within an organisation, productivity can be increased in two ways. First a rm can acquire new technology and equipment to produce goods and services more efciently this, of course, is the reasoning behind the world-wide trend towards the roboticising of manufacturing. This approach increases the capital intensity of the rm and the trade-off may be fewer jobs and short-term downsizing.
The alternative route to productivity enhancement emphasises the connection between satisfaction of employees needs and productivity. Here, the organisation makes investments in future earnings by emphasising sustainable competitive advantage by investments in training and development, leaner production systems that favour the use of self-directed teams and organisational designs that improve sales opportunities by enhanced service offerings that are delivered by a highly motivated work-force.
It is important to note that competitive advantage that is derived from an energised and well-trained work-force is much harder to duplicate than simply investing in capital improvements. Nonetheless, forward-thinking managements typically do both. You will learn about organisational behaviour tools throughout this course. You will also learn how to create and analyse programmes like the one conceived by Ren.
Your analyses will show how knowledge of organisational behaviour e can be used to address employee needs and organisational productivity at the same time. The Building Blocks of Individual Differences Values are found in people at a deeper psychological level than work attitudes such as job satisfaction, job involvement and organisational commitment because they are more general and basic in nature.
In our lives and work we use values as cognitive measuring devices to evaluate and judge our own behaviour and the behaviour of others.
According to Rokeach, values are enduring beliefs that a specic mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. As we grow up and experience the inuence of family, social institutions and culture, we nd that our values develop into a coherent sense of self known as our self-concept.
Through adolescence we nd ourselves in new situations which shape and form our values and, with time they stabilize into a dependable and resilient value system. Because it is not easily changed and it is the only one that we have, we use our self-concept to judge the appropriateness of our behaviour and the behaviour of others. And we use it to judge the meaningfulness of our goals in life and the goals of the people around us.
Because values and value systems relate to concepts of right and wrong, businesses have taken an interest in this subject because it ties directly to the growing emphasis on ethics in business practices. In other words, values form the basis for ethical business behaviour. It is not uncommon now to nd companies which carefully screen potential employees for the compatibility of their values and company business practices. Further, some companies offer their employees two-month sabbaticals to pursue personal growth in areas which are connected to company practices and work-force values.
Rokeach distinguishes between instrumental and terminal values. Instrumental values are the means to achieve goals by using acceptable behaviours to achieve an end state. Terminal values are the goals to be achieved or the appropriateness of desired end states. Examples of instrumental and terminal values. Clearly the two values work in harmony to determine the goals to strive for using the means that are most acceptable to the individual and to society.
More diverse work-forces challenge organisations because such diversity is always based on cultural differences in values. For instance, the instrumental value of loyalty is more important to Japanese workers than either family loyalty or political loyalty.
In the USA, family and loyalty to friends far outweigh in importance either loyalty to employers or loyalty to supervisors. Values often shape the individuals views of authority and its rights and obligations. French managers view authority as a right of ofce or rank. Thus, they often use power based on their position in the organisation. In contrast, managers in The Netherlands and Scandinavia value group discussion of decisions and they expect their decisions to be challenged by their subordinates.
American managers view organisational rank or authority as being less valuable and important than the ability to solve problems through the application of expertise. Implications of Values in Global Organisations Conducting business in global markets often creates situations which directly challenge the values of managers.
In the USA the solicitation of gifts in exchange for favourable business decisions is highly discouraged. In Asia and Mexico business traditions encourage the exchange of gifts in business transactions. What many American managers may consider to be payoffs and kickbacks may simply be rened and accepted ways of doing business in other countries. In companies with global business aspirations it is not unusual to nd managers who are going overseas for assignments to be trained in culture-based value differences.
These managerial seminars frequently emphasise the following principles: Do not prejudge the business customs of others as immoral or corrupt.
Assume that they are legitimate until proven otherwise. Edinburgh Business School. Search for legitimate ways to operate within others ethical points of view; do not demand that they t into your value system. Avoid rationalising questionable actions with excuses such as: This isnt really illegal or immoral. This is in the companys best interests. No one can nd out about this. My company will back me up on this. Refuse to do business when stakeholder actions violate the law or basic organisational values.
Conduct business as openly and honestly as possible.
The Study of Personality and Employees Personal Traits Personality, which makes individuals unique, is a complex, multidimensional concept. It is dened as a relatively permanent set of psychological characteristics that inuence the individuals behaviour. Our discussion will now turn to several individual differences which demonstrate dependable relationships with features of employee needs and organisational productivity.
Individual differences are dened as basic aspects of personality from which we can predict or explain what people do at work. For instance, a shy and retiring employee is likely to have a certain effect on his co-workers and superiors.
The employees behaviour will create certain attitudes in his superiors and colleagues. In turn, these attitudes may initiate behaviours which inuence and ultimately diminish organisational productivity. We shall focus on locus of control, extroversion and introversion, Machiavellianism and socially acquired needs in our discussion of individual differences.
Locus of control is a well-researched concept. Let us consider an example before we dene the concept. Kendrick has worked hard to improve his job skills through personal study. He hopes to use his knowledge of computer programming to solve several data management problems in his department which processes cargo manifests for a major European shipping rm. The company generally encourages personal development in job-related areas and it has a history of promoting employees who demonstrate this form of personal enterprise.
Kendrick believes he can obtain a promotion if his performance improves through the solution of the programming problem. Deiter works in Kendricks ofce and is extremely skilled in the tasks associated with processing ship manifests. He has not pursued outside personal development opportunities. He can often be overheard saying that it doesnt matter how hard you work, management promotes those who happen to be in the right place at the right time.
As a result of this personal philosophy, Deiter sees his job in narrow terms and takes a dim view of doing all that extra work for a promotion that will never come. What Is the Difference between Kendrick and Deiter? Psychologists would say that Kendrick has an internal locus of control while Deiter has an external locus of control.
Locus of control is dened as an individuals belief that ones actions inuence the outcomes one experiences in life. Locus of control has to do with perceptions of cause and effect relationships.
It is neutral relative to type of outcome. It simply refers to the strength of ones belief that personal action will or will not result in certain outcomes, be they positive or negative.
Try the exercise in Table 1. Please circle the statement for each item that is closer to your opinion. Doing well in school is a matter of studying hard.
Receiving a pay rise is a matter of hard work; being in the right place has nothing to do with it. Pay rises are a matter of getting noticed by your superior. There are some things that people should not attempt to change because they will fail in the attempt. If a person is committed enough, he can create political change single-handedly.
Getting ahead in todays business world is a matter of persistence and hard work. Whoever gets ahead in todays business world must have connections. When I believe Im right about something, I feel as if I can convince anyone. It is extremely difcult to change peoples attitudes by talking to them. Managers often play favourites and give some subordinates larger rises. Employees generally earn the rises they get. Give yourself one point if you answered the six questions in the following manner: The closer your score is to six the more external your locus of control.
Scores less than three indicate an internal locus of control. Scores of three or four indicate that you are not always consistent about your beliefs about the relationship between your behaviour and the outcomes you experience.
The locus of control concept is such an important component of personality that if an individual begins to doubt his beliefs about cause and effect relations in life, he can experience a variety of consequences associated with lowered self-esteem, e.
Generally internalisers are more attracted to work situations which have opportunities for personal achievement. They are more motivated and better performers than externalisers if they believe that performance is skill-based instead of luck-based. Like Kendrick in the example, they will search for new. Characteristics of internalisers and externalisers Externals tend to believe that Pay rises are based on having the right job in the right place in the company.
Teachers have favourites and give them higher marks. Anyone, given the right circumstances, can become addicted to drugs. Peoples attitudes cannot be changed easily by appealing to their logic.
Internals tend to believe that Pay rises are based on hard work, achievement and initiative. An excellent performance record is the function of hard work and effective project completion.
A person addicted to drugs is willing to give up control of his life. Good decisions are the result of tenaciously searching for information. They also take quicker action to correct job confusion than externalisers do.
Locus of control affects how anxious and emotional employees become following traumatic events. Internalisers are more trusting and they dismiss job failure more readily. In addition, they prefer leaders who let them participate, and they are sensitive to organisational attempts to inuence their thinking and behaviour.
Managerial Implications of the Research The results noted above indicate that internalisers will work harder when they are told that rewards are based on superior skill and high performance.
This managerial message encourages the development of an internal locus of control in all employees, including externally orientated employees who, when they observe their co-workers being rewarded for acquiring new skills and achieving higher performance, may become similarly motivated. All programmes aimed at these effects should be widely communicated throughout the rm. In addition, the value of skill-based compensation can be quite important for developing employees with an internal locus in their work.
Skill-based compensation payfor-knowledge means that a portion of an employees pay rise is allocated for the documented acquisition of new job-related skills. Such programmes can build a more internalising work-force consisting of employees who perceive a coherent relationship between performance on the job and the rewards they receive.
The research results also underscore the importance of participation for sustaining employee development, e. Managers should be careful to use participation, especially when the development of employee skills is a key feature of a managerial decision.
Since we know that internalisers prefer to play a part in decisions which affect them, it makes sense for managers to use participation in decision-making when the decision needs employee support for implementation and affects employees in a personal manner. Additionally, participation sweeps away employee confusion about work responsibilities.
Since internalisers expect strong cause and effect relationships regarding their behaviour and its outcomes, managers can use participation to strengthen those expectations. Locus of control appears to be related to entrepreneurial behaviour and the taking of business risks.
Behaviourally, internalisers are more likely to act quickly when they judge their current work to be limiting their options or suppressing their creativity, especially in the acquisition of new skills which may lead to better performance and more personally valued rewards. Managerially speaking, if internals are prevented from acquiring new skills, or if they are not rewarded for acquiring new skills, they become frustrated.
If the conditions persist, they may leave the organisation. This, of course, leaves fewer competent people to do more work. In turn, other competent employees are affected by these deteriorating circumstances and they too may leave. The argument developed above demonstrates the signicance that internals attach to rewards which are based on performance.
If they believe that good performance is rewarded fairly, they will believe that their efforts are more likely to result in job success. A rms pay system should be designed to reinforce this employee belief. If the pay system is so structured, employees will become more internal in their work orientation.
This is a highly desirable outcome in the rm, because managers are then relieved of some of the burden of direct employee control. Extroversion and Introversion We often notice that some people are more sociable than others. Those individuals who are outgoing and gregarious are called extroverts. Introverts, on the other hand, are shyer and less willing to get involved in social activities.
Those who crave social stimulation would probably have active social lives, enjoy crowds and be more attracted to adventurous and exciting holidays. Thus, the manager who is involved actively in community work and social organisations, ts our denition of extrovert. Introversion is dened as avoidance of external stimulation in favour of internally oriented, contemplative activity.
Introverts are individuals who attempt to reduce the amount of social interaction in their environments. Thus, they avoid many of the social activities which extroverts nd so compelling.
In summary, introverts tend to be more sensitive to their personal feelings and what is going on inside. All individuals exist on an introversionextroversion continuum. People experience both types of needs at different times, with varying intensity, depending on the situations they confront.
In general, we all, whether introvert or extrovert, try to regulate the amount of social stimulation we receive. Note the emphasis on external stimulation and social interaction. Some companies attempt to identify a job applicants extroversion level before hiring. Companies hiring salespeople often use tests with items similar to those in Table 1. Many sales managers believe it is related to success in sales.
The implications of an employees extroversion or introversion are not as clear as are the consequences of internal versus external locus of control. There are, however, some interesting research results. Introverts generally have longer tenure and fewer unexcused absences than do extroverts. Too much external stimulation often causes the introverts performance to drop off quickly.
When extroverts are confronted with dull or meaningless work, they are more likely to engage in irrelevant behaviour which undermines the productivity of co-workers. Managers should consider these effects as they match individuals with job characteristics. Id rather curl up with a good book than go to a party. I prefer to be around people who are funny and clever.
If I had a choice, I would take a cross-country bicycle trip for my vacation rather than a Mediterranean cruise. When I have to deal with a new situation involving other people, I usually jump right in.
I greatly admire individuals who take bold public stands on socially controversial issues. When Im in unfamiliar social situations, I generally feel self-condent and interested in meeting new people. The Machiavellian Personality The end justies the means is an old expression which translates to, Ill do anything at work to achieve my objectives. Employees with this tendency will manipulate others and try to induce them to think in their terms.
An employee who believes he is better at giving orders than his superior probably has a Machiavellian personality. High Machs are described as being cool interpersonally, amoral, pleased by manipulating others, and highly rational. If you are interested in assessing yourself try the questions in Table 1. When individuals get high scores on the full version of the questionnaire in Table 1.
People with high MachV scores generally 1 attempt more interpersonal manipulations, 2 are more inventive in manipulating others, 3 conceive of more manipulations to choose from and 4 experience more satisfaction from successful manipulations than. Circle the answer closest to your opinion for each question then calculate you score as shown below. Strongly disagree 1 I enjoy getting around people by telling them what they want to hear I prefer to take action only when I have sorted out the ethically right decision There are no situations that I encounter in which lying is the best course of action I believe that most people have a deceitful streak that comes out from time to time.
However, if the situation is highly structured with many checks and balances on behaviour, then the high Mach will generally avoid manipulating others. Generally speaking, more Machiavellian manipulations are attempted at the top than at the bottom of organisations.