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The present book “Butshikan” is historical novel which contains life story and history of Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi in Urdu language. Urdu historical novel. Mahmud of Ghazni was the first independent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from to He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his his grandson by Mas'ud, Maw'dud Ghaznavi, also later became ruler of the empire. .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Translation of the Tarikh-i-Sultan Mahmud-i-Ghaznavi, or, The history of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni: the text-book for the higher standard.
He made his 16th attack on the Somnath temple in just to plunder the gold. He was the son of Subuktgeen. In fact, Ghaznavi attacked India 17 times. The main objective of his attacks was to plunder the wealth of Ghaznavi. He defeated Hindu ruler Jaya Pala, who committed suicide himself later and was succeeded by his son Anandpala.
Ghazni invaded Bhatia in AD. Ghazni invaded Multan in AD. During this time, Ananda Pala attacked him. Ghazni attacked Nagarkot in the Punjab hills in AD. Mahmud of Ghazni captured Thanesar in AD. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked Kashmir in AD. Mahmud married a woman named Kausari Jahan, and they had twin sons Mohammad and Ma'sud , who succeeded him one after the other; his grandson by Mas'ud, Maw'dud Ghaznavi , also later became ruler of the empire.
Mahmud's companion was a Georgian slave Malik Ayaz , and his love for him inspired poems and stories. Sabuktigin died in , and was succeeded by his son Ismail as the ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty. The reason behind Sabuktigin's choice to appoint Ismail as heir over the more experienced and older Mahmud is uncertain.
It may due to Ismail's mother being the daughter of Sabuktigin's old master, Alptigin.
Mahmud initiated the first of numerous invasions of North India. Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan in by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to curry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids.
At this point, Jayapala attempted to gain revenge for an earlier military defeat at the hands of Mahmud's father, who had controlled Ghazni in the late s and had cost Jayapala extensive territory. His son Anandapala succeeded him and continued the struggle to avenge his father's suicide.
He assembled a powerful confederacy that suffered defeat as his elephant turned back from the battle at a crucial moment, turning the tide into Mahmud's favor once more at Lahore in and bringing Mahmud into control of the Shahi dominions of Udbandpura.
Following the defeat of the Indian Confederacy, after deciding to retaliate for their combined resistance, Mahmud then set out on regular expeditions against them, leaving the conquered kingdoms in the hands of Hindu vassals and annexing only the Punjab region.
Mahmud defeated, captured, and later released the Shahi ruler Jayapala, who had moved his capital to Peshawar modern Pakistan.
Jayapala killed himself and was succeeded by his son Anandapala. In Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Bhatia probably Bhera , and in he invaded Multan , at which time Anandapala's army attacked him. The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukhapala, ruler of Bathinda who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom.
In , during Mahmud's eighth expedition into eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Shahi kingdom which was then under Trilochanapala, son of Anandapala was overthrown. In Mahmud led an expedition to Thanesar. The next year he unsuccessfully attacked Kashmir. In he attacked Mathura and defeated a coalition of rulers there while also killing a ruler called Chandrapala. In Mahmud supported the Kannauj king against Chandela Ganda, who was defeated. That same year Shahi Trilochanapala was killed at Rahib and his son Bhimapala succeeded him.
Lahore modern Pakistan was annexed by Mahmud. Mahmud besieged Gwalior , in , where he was given tribute. Mahmud attacked Somnath in , and its ruler Bhima I fled. The next year, he captured Somnath and marched to Kachch against Bhima I. That same year Mahmud also attacked the Jat people of Jud. The Indian kingdoms of Nagarkot , Thanesar , Kannauj , and Gwalior were all conquered and left in the hands of Hindu, Jain , and Buddhist kings as vassal states and he was pragmatic enough not to neglect making alliances and enlisting local peoples into his armies at all ranks.
Since Mahmud never kept a permanent presence in the northwestern subcontinent, he engaged in a policy of destroying Hindu temples and monuments to crush any move by the Hindus to attack the Empire; Nagarkot , Thanesar , Mathura , Kannauj , Kalinjar  and Somnath all submitted or were raided. In Mahmud raided Gujarat , plundering the Somnath temple and breaking its jyotirlinga. He took away a booty of 2 million dinars.
Historians including Thapar, Eaton, and A. Majumdar have questioned the iconoclastic historiography of this incident. Thapar quoted Majmudar But, as is well known, Hindu sources do not give any information regarding the raids of Sultan Mahmud, so that what follows is based solely on the testimony of Muslim authors. Thapar also argued against the prevalent narrative: Yet in a curiously contradictory manner, the Turko-Persian narratives were accepted as historically valid and even their internal contradictions were not given much attention, largely because they approximated more closely to the current European sense of history than did the other sources.
The last four years of Mahmud's life were spent contending with the influx of Oghuz and Seljuk Turks from Central Asia and the downloadid dynasty.
Later, they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successors across Khorasan and Balkh and even sacked Ghazni in Sultan Mahmud died on 30 April His mausoleum is located in Ghazni, Afghanistan. Ghor and Muhammad ibn Suri are then captured by Mahmud, made prisoner along with Muhammad ibn Suri's son, and taken to Ghazni, where Muhammad ibn Suri dies. Appoints Sewakpal to administer the region. Anandapala flees to Kashmir , fort in the hills on the western border of Kashmir.
Under the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni, the region broke away from the Samanid sphere of influence. While he acknowledged the Abbasids as caliph as a matter of form, he was also granted the title Sultan in recognition of his independence.
Following Mahmud's recognition by the Abbasid caliphate in , he pledged a jihad and a raid on India every year. In the context of his religious policies toward Hindus, modern historians such as Romila Thapar and Richard M. Eaton have commented that his policies were in contrast to his general image in the modern era.
Mahmud used his plundered wealth to finance his armies which included mercenaries. The Indian soldiers, which Romila Thapar presumed to be Hindus, were one of the components of the army with their commander called sipahsalar -i-Hinduwan lived in their quarter of Ghazna practicing their own religion. Indian soldiers under their commander Suvendhray remained loyal to Mahmud. They were also used against a Turkic rebel, with the command given to a Hindu named Tilak according to Baihaki.
Mohammad Habib states that there was no imposition of Jizya on "non-Muslims" during the reign of Mahmud of Ghazni nor any mention of "forced conversions": By the end of his reign, the Ghaznavid Empire extended from Ray in the west to Samarkand in the north-east, and from the Caspian Sea to the Yamuna. Although his raids carried his forces across the Indian subcontinent , only a portion of the Punjab and of Sindh in modern-day Pakistan came under his semi-permanent rule; Kashmir , the Doab , Rajasthan , and Gujarat remained under the control of the local Hindu dynasties.
The booty brought back to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians e.
Abolfazl Beyhaghi , Ferdowsi give descriptions of the magnificence of the capital, as well as of the conqueror's munificent support of literature. He transformed Ghazni, the first centre of Persian literature ,  into one of the leading cities of Central Asia, patronizing scholars, establishing colleges, laying out gardens, and building mosques, palaces, and caravansaries.
Mahmud brought whole libraries from Ray and Isfahan to Ghazni. He even demanded that the Khwarizmshah court send its men of learning to Ghazni. Mahmud patronized the notable poet Ferdowsi, who after laboring 27 years, went to Ghazni and presented the Shahnameh to him. There are various stories in medieval texts describing the lack of interest shown by Mahmud to Ferdowsi and his life's work. His expedition across the Gangetic plains in inspired Al-Biruni to compose his Tarikh Al-Hind in order to understand the Indians and their beliefs.
During Mahmud's rule, universities were founded to study various subjects such as mathematics, religion, the humanities, and medicine. On 30 April Sultan Mahmud died in Ghazni at the age of Sultan Mahmud had contracted malaria during his last invasion. The medical complication from malaria had caused lethal tuberculosis. The Ghaznavid Empire was ruled by his successors for years.
The expanding Seljuk empire absorbed most of the Ghaznavid west.
The military of Pakistan has named its short-range ballistic missile the Ghaznavi Missile in honour of Mahmud of Ghazni. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Mahmud Hotak or Mahmud Ghazan. For the Indian Army general, see Sultan Mahmood general. For the Pakistani social scientist, see Sultan Mahmood social scientist. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
The specific problem is: Contradictory information on when he adopted the title of Sultan vs , and missing information on when what year he broke off from the Samanid Empire, among others. Please help improve this article if you can. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Medieval illustration of Mahmud and his court.
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Verse to Mahmud of Ghazni. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: The Pioneer. Retrieved Majumdar, Chalukyas of Gujarat Bombay, , quoted in Thapar , p.
The Many Voices of a History. Anjum, Tanvir Summer Some Historical Disconnects and Missing Links". Islamic Studies. Barnett, Lionel