PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . while drawing the figure is that the human from is. Notes to the reader This book is not meant as a step by step or a formula (art maroc-evasion.info Requirements of Successful Figure Drawing. ILLUSTRATIONS . DEAR READER: For many years the 11eed of a further book om in drawing liut that he wishes from his tocs up . all the basic factors upon which good drawing be necessary in.
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The approach to drawing presented in this book is one I have used for a number of . thing to keep in mind while drawing the figure is that the human from is. 1 UCCESSFULLY to build up the human figure in a drawing, painting or statue, either from imagination or from a model, the artist or sculp tor must be possessed . To capture the beauty and grace of the human body, view the figure as a collection .. drawings, anatomy books and expert comic-book artists of the s and.
Dover - Anatomy and Drawing. Includes valuable suggestions for using pencils, chalk, charcoal and other media. Dover - Landscape Drawing Step-by-Step. Watercolor Painting: Unlike oils or acrylic paints, watercolors are never fully controllable, and the artist must allow for unexpected movement and blending. In the hands of a truly gifted watercolorist, this untamed power can create moving and memorable works of art.
You'll master those skills, beginning with terminology and equipment, and then going into the basics of color classification, the use of shadows, the color triangle, and forming a palette.
Next, create preliminary sketches, experiment with both Wet-on-Wet and Dry Surface techniques, and learn the secrets of achieving fluidity and controlling the halo effect. Soon, you'll understand how and why Renoir and Monet chose and used their palettes, and be on your way to becoming a more accomplished watercolorist.
Watercolour Painting - Jean-Louis Morelle.
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Learn how to get the good art supplies like watercolor brushes, watercolor paints and watercolor papers without going broke. See how to safely store and attractively display them for family and friends.
Excellent information for those just looking to learn about making art at home. Watercolor Sketching for Travelers. Draw 50 Baby Animals: Lee J. Notice how the cylindrical thigh form of the upper leg enters the pelvic mass well below its box-like front comer. When we attach the legs to the sides of the the base of the belly.
Because of the apparent pelvic wedge block, note the large, protruding pressure, the belly rises high in the basin. The secondary form, the centrally located lower figure to the right emphasizes the high belly belly actually the mass of the small intestine , insert in an action figure: The figure to the left shows a change of position.
The round protru sion, schematized version of the bulging belly box high in the sides of the legs, is the great mounted in the opening of the hip flanges. The trochanter, the bony eminence which lets us center figure relates this belly bulge to the legs. The two figures to the right show how the In the small, erect figure to the left, the front leg side view leg is easily interpreted in both front is characterized by a B-shape. The side leg in a and back positions. The upper figure presents a raised bend position has an S-curve line.
Both front view leg in a deep bend, which is rhythms are shown in the dotted lines. The described with a B-shape curve. This series of action figures allows to see the stance of the foot from number of viewing angles. In this front view leg, notice how the mid-axial connection the waist. The foot convincing support. In the figure the right— stance is shown in the dotted ellipse.
Note the a multiple action torso the front legs are thrust of the foot as the ankle connection underpinned with RXWWKUXVW foot stance reverses the bearing of the leg and thrusts the support. In this summary series of sketches, which show leg and torso positions and actions the reader is asked to let his eye range casually over each figure.
Can you identify easily which of the legs is drawn from a side view S-line orientation and which from a front view B-shape orientation? In making your judgment, do you observe how the anklebone relates to each leg view —whether the bulge is inside or outside the outline of the leg? As you look at the lower legs, are you aware of the outward thrust of the feet?
Now we propose the third factor in this sequence: Earlier, we spoke of the structure rhythm of the double underarm curve. This, together with tapered cylinder forms, is a rudimentary de- scription of the arm. Free-swinging as they are, their position in the region of the shoulder is secured with fiber and tissue. The shoulderblade scapula to which the arm is attached is itself unanchored, and the lesser attachment of arm to collarbone is a variable connection. The arms at this juncture are inde- pendent of the frame, but the collarbone is anchored in the breastbone sternum , and here, all the way down to mid-chest, the junction is firmly secured and cannot be displaced.
The only real movement here is equal to that of a fixed hinge. In the small figure upper left , the arms are indicated in strong line with a light line cylindrical overlay.
Cylinders are replaced by arm forms dotted lines. The armature yoke of the coupled arms is still emphasized.
The total figure has been advanced and tightened up. Here is another example of the linking of the arms. The smaller schematic drawing is taken to an advanced stag in the larger figure, reinforcing the interconnecting transit of the linked arms through the chest barrel.
In drawing the arms, it is important to combine the coupled arms in the collarbone yoke with their structural rhythm. The structure of the arms, upper or lower, has a consistent and similar curved rhythm, starting from the base of the elbow. A double curve develops see dotted lines , holding to the underarm exterior position of the member. The arms in a rear view figure. The linked arms and the underarm curves hold true but with one modification: The dotted line through the shoulders, from arm to arm, is added to show the torso tilt.
Here, the double underarm curve and the linked arms are shown in a variable sequence. See how easily the arms are put into a concise form with these conceptual devices. Three rear view figures in completed form, Here we see a notational sketch of WKH drawn in notational sequence.
The upper figure armature yoke — inverted—on the shoulders. The important thing to the facility of the approach. This figure shows three optional head positions. These head positions, imposed on the torso, do not limit the possible variations of head placement, but they do show how an effective figure may be held until a desired head meets the logic of the action.
Here, two figures with deep tor bends give overviews of the figure from the front and from the back. The super imposition of each of the heads, in a] number of trials, can proceed with ease and directness when the figure initially laid in. Indicating the he. The two head; however, suggest the extreme use which may be advanced within the context of the figure.
In this case, a: The extremities should of changes. This approach—a figure going series of action sketches, giving vitality and be free and open; forms should stretch, extend, through a number of related, sequential acts, liveliness to the forms of the torso.
When you thrust, exert. Your figures should convey energy none alike in their mobile, momentary add the legs and the arms, try to avoid passive, and vigor. These tend to be If figure ideas are hard to come by, perhaps the unimaginative and governing motif of a sports A series of side view figures might be a good statement.
These figures show a further and was inserted before the final stretch and way to begin in an opening exercise. The important things in this see a running figure gathering impetus for a To compress the action of the athlete and three-part finish are 1 having a pool of leap and jump.
In figure 2 has been dropped. Because of this con- function to meet a required goal. It is at this this five-phase action statement, the figure 1 densation, the running action has a greater second point that the art student becomes the leans forward, 2 runs hard, 3 takes off, 4 concentration of drive and thrust.
The leap of artist—when he is able to assert a definite leaps, and 5 projects forward to a mark. This is a PHWKRG of shown as an initial stage in working a working, a two-stage procedure where figure to a completed stage. Compare the artist explores and probes in a the sizes of each of the figures—the tentative, searching series of rough small, "thumbnail", primary figure sketches, then breaks off to resolve ideas—with their enlarged, developed and finish his concept.
There are times when a notation sketch is sketch has such a concentrated visual impact placed on the work surface in its final large that the figure will go flat, or stale, if its size, rather than in a smaller size. In this case, development is inhibited.
In this illustration, a the same sketch idea is carried through, without group of figures, from small to increasingly interruption, in a continuous sequence from larger sizes, have been sketched in a spiral probing to finish. The advantage of this second pattern which evolves to a center workup. This three-stage sketch shows how the forms of effect; the expanding and compressing effect the figure change when they are foreshortened.
The segmented and discontinuous. In this last figure figure on the left gives a predominantly side right , the forms seen on end tend to divide and view; the form effect shows an easy transition, detach; the array of dissimilar elements especially in the extended members. The center becomes an aggregate of parts, rather than a figure shows a partial back view; now the forms coherent whole. If there is a seeming unity in begin to show more depth, and a tendency to the forms, it is in their positional sequence and bulging occurs expansion and compression as direction, as well as in the viewer's familiarity the forms close into one another in the process with the contour of the figure.
Identifying and tracing parallels can direct the eye quickly to important structural relationships at each end of a form unit. Light and shade. Light and shade are. Arthur form occur with frequency: The ability to observe and identify these alignments when they occur is exceedingly useful in drawing.
In the act of drawing. The clues are revealed by the direction of lights and shadows. In this way. Museum Gordon of Fine Arts. In the right leg. This is not always recognized. See illustrations and The limits of the plane of dark shadow in the right leg repeat both enclosing outer contours from knee to ankle. The outer edge of this shadow follows the crest of the tibia shinbone.
This surface becomes the transitional connecting plane across the form. The highlight in the right forearm from elbow to wrist and the shadow below it from elbow to wrist enclose a long horizontal plane directed upward from the lower contour.
The inner surface edge dividing the upper arm and foreann is also coordinated and ends The foreshortened volumes of the thighs from knee lower contour and perspectively at the highlights. The shadow below relates also to the to hip contain strong modeling across the surface of each plane. Harvard University. Bequest planes above and below are coordinated in tone and contour with this inner relationship.
This close relationship between a highlight and a shadow may also be observed in the drawing by Greuze . Parallel relationships between a shadow and a highlight occur habitually on the front plane of the nose and identify the three planes two sides and front that make up the larger part of this form. It should also be noted that this highlight follows the surface prominence of the patella. The relationship between a length of highlight and enclosing contours in their longest overall direction and dimension the full length of the a parallel contour from the knee to the ankle is a torso.
Parallels are important in related units of overlapping forms Linear parallels extending across the back top usually indicated by contour lines. The entire painting is re- of the head and neck. Parallels Across the Form. The lower position of the highlight implies a series of diagonals that gives a forward thrust to the inner plane of the knee. The curve of the deltoid. Samuel presents a distinct problem.
Taken singly. This is the case in views of the torso and the profile in developing a form. The torso in certain views and posirions Mrs.
Teylers Stitchting. The contour overlapping the back of the deltoid is part of a parallel sequence the long contour and support the perspective of ending at the elbow. Within the large unit of the knee. Parallel or near-parallel relationships may exist between two Sachs.
This may be seen clearly in the contours of the back in the drawing produced in illustration Parallels between contours enclosing a form are most difficult to identify Detail from Alle gory of Fidelity by Tintoretto. This is an unfinished canvas showing clearly the first stages of drawing in large areas the underpainting. A clear example is the arm study  by the direction of the condyles of the humerus es- tablish a related parallel sequence cutting in from Michelangelo.
Closer analysis is valuable. It is a revealing study of essentials its particular. The fluid but precise brush drawing in the underpainting of the leg explains clearly the two major long planes. Gift of in the larger and more complex forms in the figure. Perpendicular directions running with which he may have to contend. The inner edge of reflected light is tied to surface changes ending In the Tintoretto Adam and Eve . Study the shadow side of the torso for parallel directions from compositional device — the dramatic use of the cast shadow.
Clearly the product of an National Gallery of Canada. The Cast shadows present a perplexing problem to the draftsman. Both thighs are encircled by hip to breast. They A ribbon of shadow cutting across the middle of a through the length of the thighs may be picked form can be revealing if intelligently understood or result in disaster if not.
Sharp Analysis of an Arm. A pattern of sharp arm. The sequence of highlights points In seeking structural limits within a form. The muscles. This alignment is the connec- tion for broad planes on the back and side of the on undulating surfaces are. Again This analysis is based on the study by Michel- caution is in order not to abuse the planes in favor of the clues. Connected directions of interrupted linear lights B at the shoulder. Seated red chalk shadows have the appearance of easy fluid curves.
In this precisely where the vertical plane of reflected light on the inner thigh meets the darker study. On closer examination. At first glance these Study of a Nude Male Figure. A glance at the per. A number of apparently independent small high- lights discovered on curved and undulating sur- Vertical and horizontal curves at the hip are repeated at the upper shadow edge and faces may form connected sequence pointing to a a structural limit at each end of a form.
Graphische Sammlung Alber- change from the vertical to the horizontal curve can be identified. Their identity. This results in shadow "copying. Location is the key and guide to the modeling of a form in light and dark. Another is modeling by means of lines running parallel to the length of a form that is. The completeness of a mental. The selective abstraction of significant locational relationships with a complex form. The complexity of the human form may require a part of the anatomy to be under- stood within a hierarchical structure of two levels.
It has its own internal structure. This structural image held in mind just above the drawing paper then permits an enormous range and uniqueness of expression without loss of order.
With skill born of much drawing experience. A haphazard scratching in of a tone can violate space and volume structure and distort surface relationships within a volume. One is the classic method in which modeling lines are curved into the form at right angles to its length.
Like H. Carefully organized relationships at each end of a form. This is the case. One level is large and fundamental. It is important to bear in mind that observational drawing is not simply a retinal response to visual sensation. The first is held in mind. To preserve spatial order. In practice. Many of Degas's pastels. Wells's invisible man. There are a variety of approaches to modeling.
When the human figure is represented as a form in perspective. On a practical level. Few individuals are fully aware of. It offers a graphic parallel to human vision in observational drawing and creates the illusion of three dimensions on a two-dimensional surface. Inexperienced students fre- quently impose an idea of the actual "known" length on the visually reduced length of a foreshortened volume or plane in perspective. These are invariably drawn too long. But the anatomical relationships of parts of the human body may also be drawn to conform to a consistent visual point of view.
Implied within the term foreshortening is the diminution in scale of forms and surfaces in a receding space. Piero used two projections of the front and profile views. In freehand observational drawing i. Albrecht Diirer. Interstitial space refers to the space between forms by itself.
Ignoring the geometry. Several attempts have been made to create viable formal perspective systems for the general anatomy of the figure. It would be more precise to say the eye socket is the constant station point. Whatever their direction. As a term. In perspective this is called the station point. The relationships established in a drawing done directly from observation combine numerous allied optical viewpoints within the controlling limit of the station point.
One foreshortens specific aligned form units. Convergence is foreshor- tening with a vanishing point. But unlike the unvarying viewpoint of the eye in perspective. An analysis of segments of complex units in the figure would reveal a foreshortened perspective of each part.
Attention and eye movement coincide to identify visual fact. In spite of this necessary and permissible degree of eye and head movement. In the context of depth perception.
Perspective codifies the per- ception of size reduction in spatial depth by linear convergence lines converging to a common vanishing point The principle of convergence.
The principle of convergence covers the many unstated perspectives in the perception of forms. Foreshortening is a freehand extension of formal perspective applied to drawing forms visually compressed in depth. But applied to complex organic forms like the human image. The guiding optical control to which multiple foreshortenings relate. An instant example of this coincidence is the multiple mind-eye focusing on this page. The eye is not stationary. Piero della Francesca. It would not be possible to relate one object to another without this small degree of movement.
The eye contains the regulating visual mechanism for this scale re- duction. But the combined foreshortenings that comprise the many surfaces and forms in a figure drawing are not a random montage. It is a basic characteristic of the way the eye sees. Within the socket. One generally does not apply the word foreshortening to a landscape or an involved interior space. The scheme is limited and cumbersome.
Countway Library of Medicine. In this brush drawing. In the sketch by Goya . Vertical and horizontal dimensions are intersected to provide a foreshortened figure at A. Boston Medi cal Library in the Francis A. In drawing the figure. The two planes in the sup- porting foot of the young girl form a pivot for two intersecting directions within the cast shadows beneath the dancing figures.
Harry Brisbane Dick Fund. Top and side views are disposed at right angles. A symmetrical pose permits an easier explanation of perspective order in the figure and the per- spective intersection of large light and dark planes. The major continuous edge of shadow through the upper arm. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
All smaller planes integrate mto this large scheme. This illustration is from a work that attempts to apply formal perspective projection to the problem of foreshortening in figure drawing. To measure an observed. For Villon. It is directly pertinent to locational structure discussed in chapter 1 and can ultimately become an integral part of unified structural vision. Perspective theory is thus placed in the service of observation. No matter how irregular these configurations may be.
The psychology of perceptual disbelief in the sharply compressed dimensions of foreshortened forms is often very difficult to overcome.
In his etching Le Petit Dessinateur . For this reason the careful measurement of foreshortened forms is crucially important. These two attributes of space. The derived concepts of visual convergence and foreshortening are among the significant contributions of per- spective to the visual language of the artist.
This brief flattening of the visual field emphasizes not only the silhouette. For this artist. Probably the best means to learn and master foreshortening is direct observation keeping in mind the principles of perspective. The etching offers clear evidence of careful act of making a Thumb and pencil measurement is a guide and observation.
It may be described as a perceived flat transparent plane on which forms have been reduced to flat shadow shapes surrounded by flat spaces like a window with reality glued two-dimensionally to its outer side.
Perhaps multiple convergences would be a more accurate designation of the optical experience of visual perspective. It results in repeated. Using the thumb and pencil system. It should be stressed that this was not montage making.
A number of visual techniques are known and used for this purpose. Jacques Villon has drawn himself in the brary. This compels a visual reduction of observed. Print Department. One contemporary painter who consciously used multiple perspectives in landscape painting was Oskar Kokoschka. It is clear that the influence extends far beyond simple three-dimensional geometric rep- resentations. Le Petit Dessinateur etching by Jacques Villon.
Boston Public Li. A less fragmented means to determine foreshortened relationships involves the visual reduction of a three-dimensional field to a visual plane of two dimensions —a visual configuration of silhouettes and open negative spaces. It is pos. But a shift of focus to the space adjacent to its irregular serrated edge will reveal a familiar profile. In an initial response. The impact of the silhouette is important in an added sense. Once seen. He is. The term negative space is used to describe those contiguous intervals of space between and around forms.
Villon may be measuring the width of a negative space. Before moving on to the human figure. The perspective of the floor plane is im- plied by the position of the four legs. As an abstraction. Viewing the space along the serrated edge of the The dramatic simplicity of this means of visual measurement in drawing a fore- key will reveal a familiar profile.
The measurement being taken is of a specific single spatial attribute. As a technique of observation. The flat shape emphasizes the relationship and visual alteration of the contiguous negative space. The shape and the seat is immediately established by carefully form and the somewhat square space enclosed by both bent legs. This gives mean.
Below is a chair drawn by the spaces between the various parts. With the addition space. The relationship between the ing to the open negative space. Extending the transfer of visual attention to more complex visual situations can be equally instructive for an understanding of space and form structure. Thumb and pencil measurement is a means to make accurate comparisons between lengths of form or space.
The shock of this visual action can be an immediate awareness of a compressed foreshortened di- mension. The procedure can entail the comparison of a visually undistorted length with a perspectively foreshortened length. The technique can be easily demonstrated with a familiar and appropriate example. It is not. The direction of the floor plane is implied by The Key. By carefully drawing space A.
It is representative of an attitude and a practice reflected in all of his work. The isolated study of positive silhouette shape kept perspectively consistent in relation to the third dimension and the adjacent surrounding space.
With the addition of shapes B and C. This foreshortening of the thigh is confirmed again by shifting attention to the left cedure. This represents a momentary reversal of visual emphasis.
Psychologists interested in visual perception have. The artist is momentarily ignoring depth. It is possible to construct the chair in perspective from this information alone.
The configuration of a flat shape is dependent not only on the area contained by its contour. In theDegas drawing . The two horizontal arrows represent the dimension of the flat silhouette of the thigh. The space between the legs of the kneeling figure almost a square and the space outside. Photograph by Durand-Ruel. The diagonal arrow represents the axis of the form in perspective i. The seated figure is the result of at- tention focused exclusively on the interstitial spaces surrounding the form.
Figure by the author. For this study of interstitial negative space and perspective eye-level is at the top step. Drawing the negative space with care plus continual reference and comparison of the top planes of the steps against the figure integrates the figure and steps into a perspectively unified space. This example might be viewed as stage one. Compare with the Prud'hon nude illustration All points of view are from the contour outward away from the figure to planes behind the model.
Discipline and restraint curbed the temptation to develop internal modeling at this early stage in the drawing. The principle of convergence i. Three-dimensional inner volume and two-dimensional silhouette drawing are integrated into a tight.
It is this kind of ob- servation that locks form and space together.
No Inner Modeling. The form isdefined by the negative space surrounding the figure. The figure shape is defined by its neighboring space as well as internal modeling. Cliche des Musees Nationaux. The light-colored brushwork painted against the dark silhouetted legs and the top and back of the head reveal Lautrec's integrated vision. Musee du Louvre.. Shadows were firmly located with diagonal lines of charcoal and blended with a "stump.
This also avoids Photograph by Kalman Zabarsky. Angular changes in the contour of the cranial form are identified by the near the model to cast a shadow on a whitewashed wall. A related procedure was mentioned of the contour of a form.
This unfinished study of a male nude is instructive. A lamp was carefully placed Bougie . The light di. This is a The study of the silhouette offers a clearer view of major changes in the direction simple. By drawing the cast shadow on paper. It clearly indicates Prud'hon's drawing procedure. The re- sult is a cohesive relationship between the two positive and negative silhouette space study.
Viewing the figure "flat" against its surrounding space is a valuable aid to measurement. Gift of Julius Weitzner. With charcoal. Observations made on both sides of the contour of a form seen alternately as in a three-dimensional and two-dimensional space avoids the danger of drawing forms that Foreshortened Figure pencil by the author. This foreshortened figure has been defined by carefully drawing the negative space. White chalk was used to locate highlights.
Dark horizontal arrows represent the visual A few additional examples [ A few added details completed the inner form. Practice can make this easier. It has to be learned. Note especially the convincing thrust of the compressed In this lithograph. Museum of Art. Each arrow indicates achange of direction along the edge of the form.
In the left leg. Analyzed and diagramed drawings [ The coherence this provides among the various parts of the figure is almost immediately apparent. Focusing on the spaces around forms is a perceptually deliberate act of visual at- tention. He can then integrate this exercise with the observation and analysis of three-dimensional relationships. Contour and Structure pencil by the author.
Rhode Island School of Design. These contour angles are carefully coordinated with the structure of planes within the form.
The study of such illustrations should be supported by repeated concentrated drawing from the figure. Often the inexperienced student forgets to consider this problem of relationships when he is faced with a complex form or a group of closely associated forms.
Though not directly related to the problem of foreshortening in figure drawing. For the student. Coordinated with parallel foreshortened lengths. Angular changes in the contour were carefully observed by drawing "outside" the figure. Tendon is strong. Beyond these essential actions are numerous additional.
Nor will memorizing complex anatomical nomenclature. Organizing a great mass of factual detail is not easy. A knowledge of the origin and insertion will suggest these secondary actions.
The axial skeleton is composed of the skull. Many subordinate actions of bones and muscles can be deduced from their primary function. The bones are classified according to their shape: Long bones: Skeletal muscle makes up the major part of the body mass and is important for study by the artist. Tendon may also be ribbonlike or sheetlike in form aponeurotic tendon.
It is attached to the skeleton by tendons. Voluntary muscle does not attach directly to bone. It is beyond the scope of this text to dwell on the secondary exercise of articulations and muscles.
Flat bones: The skeleton is made up of over bones that serve as an internal supporting framework. But the significant facts of surface anatomy can be ex- amined to good advantage. The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the upper and lower limbs in- cluding the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. Properly understood. The symmetry of the figure is organized around a central axial skeleton and the paired components of the appendicular skeleton. Combined with active drawing from the model.
It offers protection and support to internal organs. Numerous irregularities in bone structure and many minor muscles have no direct relevance for figure drawing. They are arranged to act as levers and permit extensive movement.
Irregular bones: Tensing the fingers will reveal tendon cords on the back of the hand.. A select group of muscles directly or indirectly affect the surface form of the figure. Short bones: The direction of the fibers: Muscles Various considerations contribute to the names of muscles.
The resemblance to another object: The size: The mandible jawbone derives its name from the Latin. Some basic guidelines should help in remembering these terms.
The action of a muscle: The attachments: The occupation in which the muscle is considered useful: The location: The shape: The number of parts: The bones often derive names from a similarity to another real form. The tibialis anticus is named for part of its bony attachment.
Relative proportion of muscle to tendon: Anatomical Movement A few important terms of movement must be emphasized as clearly anatomical and paired as antagonistic. The principle sources for muscle names are: For their example.
The locational and directional significance of these larger planes is diagramed to show their influence. It is precisely at this early stage of observation. It is the initial point of contact in human communication and the focus of continuous interest.
A comparison of illustrations and indicates that there are sizable anatomic relationships in the skull structure. The selection of a number of key anatomic limits. Awareness of anatomy will help. The unique importance of the features may cause them to be seen separately. It is essential to see beyond the individual features — to get behind the veneer of deceptive detail and to discover the substance of significant surface and volume.
This disposition of selective major anatomic relationships. Axes running the length of the form and those extending across. Over this initially measured abstracted ground plan carried out to include cranial dimensions. Few forms present more misleading clues to space and structure than the head and its many prominent units. As a process. It is at this stage that a true "likeness" is achieved by the tension of lengths.
The most careful attention should be lavished on these big spatial connections. But it too presents a vast and complex array of individual elements. A more authentic guide is the direction of the eye cavity.