16 results for Books: "Anubha Kaushik" Perspectives in Environmental Studies ( Session). 1 January by Anubha Kaushik and Gaurav Garg. ASHA RANI KAUSHIK CORE MODULE SYLLABUS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Unit 1: The Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies. Environmental Studies THIS PAGE IS BLANK 'Environment' is derived from the French word Environner which means to encircle or surround 2.
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environmental-studies-book-by-kaushik-and-kaushik. Environmental Studies-A Multidisciplinary Subject; Natural Resources; Ecosystems; Bio-diversity and its Conservation. Environmental Studies Pertain To A Systematic Analysis Of The Natural And To maroc-evasion.info This Book The Fundamental Concepts Of Environmental Studies Have.
Thus environment is sum total of water, air and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings, other living organ- isms and property.
The above definition given in Environment Protec- tion Act, clearly indicates that environment includes all the physi- cal and biological surroundings and their interactions. Thus, in order to study environment one needs knowledge inputs from various disci- plines. Life Sciences including Botany, Zoology, Microbiology, Genet- ics, Biochemistry and Biotechnology help in understanding the biotic component and their interactions.
The physical and chemical struc- ture of the abiotic components and energy transfer and flow are under- stood with the help of basic concepts of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Atmospheric Science, Oceanography and Geography.
Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science serve as effective tools in environmental modeling and management. Subjects like Education, Economics, So- ciology and Mass communication provide the inputs for dealing with the socio-economic aspects associated with various developmental ac- tivities.
A synthesis with Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineer- ing, Hydraulics and Chemical Engineering form the basis for various technologies dealing with the control of environmental pollution, waste- treatment and development of cleaner technologies that are important for protection of the environment.
Environmental laws provide the tools for effective management and protection of the environment. Environ- mental Studies, therefore, is a multi-disciplinary subject where differ- ent aspects are dealt with a holistic approach. Scope Scope of environmental studies is broad based and it encompasses a large number of areas and aspects, broadly listed below: Environmental studies can be highly specialized also which may concentrate on more technical aspects like Environmental Science, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Management, Environmental Biotechnology etc.
Environment belongs to all and is thus important for all. Whatever be the occupation or age of a person, he or she will be affected by environment and will also affect the environment by his or her deeds. Thus, environment is one subject that is actually global in nature.
For example, atmosphere has no boundaries and the pollutants produced at one place can be dispersed and transported to another place. The river water polluted by industrial or municipal discharge at one point would seriously affect the downstream aquatic life.
Damage to the forests in a hilly region will have far reaching effect not only on the hills but also on the plains. This is because environment is a closely and intricately woven network of components and functions. There are some environmental problems which may be of localized importance but there are some major issues like global warming, depletion of ozone layer, dwindling forests and energy resources, loss of global biodiversity etc.
For dealing with local environmental issues, e. In order to make the people aware about those aspects of environment with which they are so intimately associated, it is very important to make every one environmentally educated.
Environmental studies is very important since it deals with the most mundane issues like safe and clean drinking water, hygienic living conditions, clean and fresh air, fertile land, healthy food and development that is sustainable.
There is a need for trained manpower at every level to deal with environmental issues. Environmental law, business administration and environmental engineering are emerging as new career opportunities for environmental protection and management. With the pollution control laws becoming more stringent, industries are finding it difficult to dispose off the produced wastes. In order to avoid expensive litigation, various companies are now trying Environmental Studies—A Multidisciplinary Subject 3 to adopt green technologies, which would reduce pollution.
Investing in pollution control technologies will reduce pollution as well as cut on costs for effluent treatment. Market for pollution control technology is huge the world over. Cleaning up of the wastes produced is another potential market.
Germany and Japan having more stringent laws for many years have gained more experience in reducing effluents. In India also the Pollution Control Boards are seriously implementing pollution control laws and insisting on upgradation of effluents to meet the prescribed standards before they are discharged on land or into a water body. Many companies not complying with the orders have been closed or ordered to shift. This is infact essential if we want to live in a clean, healthy, aesthetically beautiful, safe and secure environment for a long time and wish to hand over a clean and safe earth to our children, grand-children and great grand children.
Any government at its own level cannot achieve the goals of sustainable development until the public has a participatory role in it. Public participation is possible only when the public is aware about the ecological and environmental issues.
A drive by the government to ban the littering of polythene cannot be successful until the public un- derstands the environmental implications of the same. The public has to be educated about the fact that if we are degrading our environment we are actually harming our ownselves. This is because we are a part of the complex network of environment where every component is linked to another.
It is all the more important to educate the people that some- times the adverse impact of environment are not experienced or no- ticed until a threshold is crossed. So we may be caught unawares by a disaster. Mehta vs. Union of India that prompted the apex court to give a mandate for creating environmental awareness among all citizens of India. Today everybody talks of environment, but only a few have clear ideas about what needs to be done and still fewer have the actual experience or expertise in the field.
Unfortunately, environmental awareness campaigns have very often been exploited for political propaganda rather than being an integral part of our educational programmes in theory and practice.
Henry D. What is the need for studying environmental issues? What is the scope of environmental education? How would environmental awareness help to protect our environment?
Life on this planet earth depends upon a large number of things and services provided by the nature, which are known as Natural resources.
Thus water, air, soil, minerals, coal, forests, crops and wild life are all examples of natural resources. The natural resources are of two kinds: Solar energy is also a renewable form of energy as it is an inexhaustible source of energy.
Fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, minerals etc. Once we exhaust these reserves, the same cannot be replenished. Even our renewable resources can become non-renewable if we exploit them to such extent that their rate of consumption exceeds their rate of regeneration. For example, if a species is exploited so much that its population size declines below the threshold level then it is not able to sustain itself and gradually the species becomes endangered or extinct.
It does not mean that we should stop using most of the natural resources. Rather, we should use the resources in such a way that we always save enough of them for our future generations. In this unit we shall discuss the major natural resources: Unit 2 Natural Resources 5 Covering the earth like a green blanket these forests not only produce innumerable material goods, but also provide several environmental services which are essential for life.
But it is a matter of concern that almost everywhere the cover of the natural forests has declined over the years.
The greatest loss occurred in tropical Asia where one third of the forest resources have been destroyed. Half of the timber cut each year is used as fuel for heating and cooking. One third of the wood harvest is used for building materials as lumber, plywood and hardwood, particle board and chipboard. One sixth of the wood harvest is converted into pulp and used for paper industry.
Many forest lands are used for mining, agriculture, grazing, and recreation and for development of dams. Ecological uses: The ecological services provided by our forests may be summed up as follows: The trees produce oxygen by photo- synthesis which is so vital for life on this earth.
The main greenhouse gas car- bon dioxide CO2 is absorbed by the forests as a raw material for photosynthesis. Thus forest canopy acts as a sink for CO2 thereby reducing the problem of global warming caused by greenhouse gas CO2. Natural Resources 7 l Wild life habitat: Forests are the homes of millions of wild animals and plants.
About 7 million species are found in the tropical forests alone.
Forested watersheds act like giant sponges, absorbing the rainfall, slowing down the runoff and slowly releasing the water for recharge of springs. Forests bind the soil particles tightly in their roots and prevent soil erosion. They also act as wind- breaks. Forests can absorb many toxic gases and can help in keeping the air pure. They have also been reported to absorb noise and thus help in preventing air and noise pollution. With growing civilization the demands for raw material like timber, pulp, minerals, fuel wood etc.
Our forests contribute substantially to the national economy. Excessive use of fuel wood and charcoal, expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial areas and overgrazing have together led to over-exploitation of our forests leading to their rapid degrada- tion. Deforestation rate is relatively less in temperate countries, but it is very alarming in tropical countries where it is as high as percent and at the present rate it is esti- mated that in the next 60 years we would lose more than 90 percent of our tropical forests.
The forested area in India seems to have stabilized since with about 0. FAO estimated that about 1.
As per FAO estimates, the There are an estimated million people living as shifting cultivators who practice slash and burn agriculture and are supposed to clear more than 5 lakh ha of forests for shifting cultivation annually. P which contribute to nearly half of the forest clearing annually. Increasing demands for fuel wood by the growing population in India alone has shooted up to million tons in as compared to just 65 million tons during independence, thereby increasing the pressure on forests.
Wood for making boxes, furniture, railway-sleepers, plywood, match-boxes, pulp for paper in- dustry etc. Massive destruction of forests occur for various development projects like hydroelectric projects, big dams, road construction, mining etc.
In developing countries this is the main reason for deforestation. To meet the demands of rapidly growing population, agricultural lands and settlements are created permanently by clearing forests.
The poor in the tropics mainly rely on wood as a source of fuel leading to loss of tree cover and the cleared lands are turned into the grazing lands. Overgrazing by the cattle leads to fur- ther degradation of these lands. Major Consequences of Deforestation Deforestation has far reaching consequences, which may be outlined as follows: Natural Resources 9 ii Biodiversity is lost and along with that genetic diversity is eroded.
Nutrient cy- cling has become poor, original rich germplasm is lost and the area is invaded by exotic weeds. These areas are not able to recover and are losing their fertility. The entire west Khasi hill district of Meghalaya in North-east Himalayas, Ladakh and parts of Kumaon and Garhwal are now facing the serious prob- lem of desertification.
Following the destruc- tion of forests, rainfall declined in Chhota Nagpur to such an extent that tea -gardens also disappeared from the region. The rainfall pat- tern was found to fluctuate with wooded land area in the hills. When the Nilgiri mountains had luxuriant forest cover annual rainfall used to be much higher. Logging for valuable timber, such as teak and Mahogany not only involves a few large trees per hectare but about a dozen more trees since they are strongly interlocked with each other by vines etc.
Also road construction for making approach to the trees causes further damage to the forests. Mining operations for extracting minerals and fossil fuels like coal often involves vast forest areas. Mining from shallow deposits is done by surface mining while that from deep deposits is done by sub-surface mining.
More than 80, ha of land of the country is presently under the stress of mining activities. Mining and its associated activities require removal of vegetation along with underlying soil mantle and overlying rock masses. This results in defacing the topography and destruction of the landscape in the area.
Large scale deforestation has been reported in Mussorie and Dehradun valley due to indiscriminate mining of various minerals over a length of about 40 Km. Indiscriminate mining in forests of Goa since has destroyed more than 50, ha of forest land. Coal mining in Jharia, Raniganj and Singrauli areas have caused extensive deforestation in Jharkhand. Mining of magnesite and soap- stones have destroyed 14 ha of forest in the hill slopes at Khirakot, Kosi valley, Almora.
Mining of radioactive minerals in Kerala, Tamilnadu and Karnataka are posing similar threats of deforestation. The rich forests of Western Ghats are also facing the same threat due to mining projects for excavation of copper, chromite, bauxite and magnetite.
However, these dams are also responsible for the destruction of vast areas of forests. India has more than large dams, the maximum being in the state of Maharashtra more then , followed by Gujarat more then and Madhya Pradesh The highest one is Tehri dam, on river Bhagirathi in Uttaranchal and the largest in terms of capacity is Bhakra dam on river Satluj in H. Big dams have been in sharp focus of various environmental groups all over the world which is mainly because of several ecological problems including deforestation and socio-economic problems related to tribal or native people associated with them.
The Natural Resources 11 Silent Valley hydroelectric project was one of the first such projects situated in the tropical rain forest area of Western Ghats which attracted much concern of the people.
The crusade against the ecological damage and deforestation caused due toTehri dam was led by Sh. Sunder lal Bahuguna, the leader of Chipko movement. For building big dams, large scale devastation of forests takes place which breaks the natural ecological balance of the region. Floods, droughts and landslides become more prevalent in such areas. Forests are the repositories of invaluable gifts of nature in the form of biodiversity and by destroying them particularly, the tropical rain for- ests we are going to lose these species even before knowing them.
These species could be having marvelous economic or medicinal value and deforestation results in loss of this storehouse of species which have evolved over millions of years in a single stroke.
A case study The dam is situated on river Narmada and is spread over three states of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Although the project is aimed at providing irrigation water, drinking water and electricity to the three states, the environmental impacts of the project have raised challenging questions.
A total of 1,44, ha of land will be submerged by the dam, out of which 56, ha is forest land. A total of villages are to be submerged by the Narmada Dam. Submergence of about 40, ha of forest under Narmada Sagar, 13, ha under Sardar Sarovar and 2, ha under Omkareshwar would further create pressure on remaining forest areas in adjoining areas. Submergence area is very rich in wildlife e. Thus massive loss of these wildlife species is apprehended due to the devastation of the forest under the project.
As per the estimates of the Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, the Narmada valley project will lead to eventual displacement of more than one million people, which is probably the largest Contd.
Uprooting of the tribals and their forced shifting in far-flung areas may not be easily adjusted to. Most of these tribals belong to poor, unprivileged schedule castes and tribes who are being uprooted from a place where they have lived for generations. The displaced persons have to undergo hardship and distress for the sake of development and prosperity of a larger section of the society. It is therefore the duty of the project proponents and government to pay maximum attention for proper rehabilitation of the displaced tribals.
Natural Resources 13 2. Water is characterized by certain unique features which make it a marvellous resource: Thus, it can serve as a very good carrier of nutrients, including oxygen, which are essential for life. But, it can also easily dissolve various pollutants and become a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms.
It is because of this property that even in extreme cold, the lakes freeze only on the surface. Being lighter the ice keeps floating, whereas the bottom waters remain at a higher temperature and therefore, can sustain aquatic organisms even in extreme cold.
The water we use keeps on cycling endlessly through the environment, which we call as Hydrological Cycle. We have enormous resources of water on the earth amounting to about million Km3.
The water from various moist surfaces evaporates and falls again on the earth in the form of rain or snow and passes through living organisms and ultimately returns to the oceans. Every year about 1. Solar energy drives the water cycle by evaporating it from various water bodies, which Plants too play a very important role by absorbing the groundwater from the soil and releasing it into the atmosphere by the process of transpiration. Global distribution of water resources is quite uneven depending upon several geographic factors.
Water is absolutely essential for life. Most of the life processes take place in water contained in the body. Uptake of nutrients, their distribution in the body, regulation of temperature, and removal of wastes are all mediated through water. Human beings depend on water for almost every developmental activity.
Water is used for drinking, irrigation, transportation, washing and waste disposal for industries and used as a coolant for thermal power plants. Water use by humans is of two types: Globally, only about 60 percent of the water withdrawn is consumed due to loss through evaporation. With increasing human population and rapid development, the world water withdrawal demands have increased many folds and a large proportion of the water withdrawn is polluted due to anthropogenic activities.
On a global average 70 percent of the water withdrawn is used for agriculture.
Per capita use of water shows wide variations. In USA, an average family of 4 consumes more than M3 of water per year, which is many times more than that in most developing countries. A Precious Natural Resource Although water is very abundant on this earth, yet it is very precious.
Even this small fraction of fresh water is not available to us as most of it is locked up in polar ice caps and just 0. Overuse of groundwater for drinking, irrigation and domestic pur- poses has resulted in rapid depletion of groundwater in various regions leading to lowering of water table and drying of wells. Pollution of many of the groundwater aquifers has made many of these wells unfit for consumption.
Rivers and streams have long been used for discharging the wastes. Most of the civilizations have grown and flourished on the banks of rivers, but unfortunately, growth in turn, has been responsible for pollution of the rivers.
As per the United Nations estimates , at least billion people do not even have access to safe drinking water and 2. Increasing population and expanding development would further increase the demands for wastes. It is estimated that by , two-thirds of the world population would be suffering from acute water shortage. Groundwater About 9.
Till some time back groundwater was considered to be very pure. However, of late, even groundwater aquifers have been found to be contaminated by leachates from sanitary landfills etc. A layer of sediment or rock that is highly permeable and contains water is called an aquifer.
Layers of sand and gravel are good aquifers while clay and crystalline rocks like granite are not since they have low permeability. Aquifers may be of two types: Unconfined aquifers which are overlaid by permeable earth materials and they are recharged by water seeping down from above in the form of rainfall and snow melt.
Confined aquifers which are sandwitched between two impermeable layers of rock or sediments and are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer intersects the land surface. Sometimes the recharged area is hundreds of kilometers away from the location of the well. Fig 2. Groundwater is not static, it moves, though at a very slow rate of about a meter or so in a year. The groundwater system.
An unconfined aquifer water table is formed when water collects over a rock or compact clay. A confined aquifer is formed sandwitched between two layers having very low permeability. Effects of Groundwater Usage i Subsidence: When groundwater withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments in the aquifer get compacted, a phenomenon known as ground subsidence. Huge economic losses may occur due to this phenomenon because it results in the sinking of overlying land surface.
The common problems associated with it include structural damage in buildings, fracture in pipes, reversing the flow of sewers and canals and tidal flooding. Mining of groundwater is done extensively in arid and semi-arid regions for irrigating crop fields. However, it is not advisable to do excessive mining as it would cause a sharp decline in future agricultural production, due to lowering of water table.
When excessive irrigation is done with brackish water it raises the water table gradually leading to water-logging and salinity problems. Natural Resources 17 Surface Water The water coming through precipitation rainfall, snow when does not percolate down into the ground or does not return to the atmos- phere as evaporation or transpiration loss, assumes the form of streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands or artificial reservoirs known as surface water.
The surface water is largely used for irrigation, industrial use, public water supply, navigation etc. Water rich vs. Heavy rainfall often causes floods in the low-lying coastal areas. Prolonged downpour can also cause the over-flowing of lakes and rivers resulting into floods.
Deforestation, overgrazing, mining, rapid industrialization, global warming etc. Floods have been regular features of some parts of India and Bangladesh causing huge economic loss as well as loss of life. The apex court has hence, issued directive to impart environmental literacy to all.
In this book the fundamental concepts of environmental studies have been introduced and analysed in a simple manner strictly as per the module syllabus designed by the U. Besides the undergraduate students of all disciplines the book will also be useful for those appearing in various competitive exams since environmental issues now find a focus in most of such examinations. The contents of the book will be of interest to all educationists, planners and policy makers.
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More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. More information about this seller Contact this seller The book will also be useful for those appearing in various competitive exams since environmental issues now find a focus in most of such examinations.
Item added to your basket View basket. Order Total 1 Item Items: Based upon analysis report consent is granted or refused to the industry. Based upon it, the State govt. No person shall, without prior consent of State Board operate or establish any industrial unit in the air pollution control area. The Water and Air Acts have also made special provisions for appeals. An Appellate Authority consisting of a single person or three persons appointed by the Head of the State, the Governor, is constituted to hear such appeals as filed by some aggrieved party industry due to some order made by the State Board within 30 days of passing the orders.
The Appellate Authority after giving the appellant and the State Board an opportunity of being heard, disposes off the appeal as expeditiously as possible. The Act extends to whole of India.