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6th Standard Tamil Text Book

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We cannot live without breathing. We get oxygen from the air. Animals living in water like the fish get the oxygen from water Fig. The oxygen is dissolved in water. So atmosphere must have oxygen and carbon-di-oxide.

Water, atmosphere with oxygen and carbon dioxide, suitable temperature and food are available only in our Earth. Hence, life exists only on the Earth. In the other planets the above said things are not available. So life is not possible in other planets. Choose the correct answer. How many planets are in the solar system? Write the name of the planets. Day and night changes alternately in the Earth. Give the reason. What is the time taken by the Earth to complete one rotation?

If the day is longer than night, then is it summer or winter? If the night is longer than day, then is it summer or winter? Is our Earth like a solid cricket ball or hollow foot ball? What are three layers of Earth? What is called atmosphere? Give the composition of air. What is the use of Ozone layer? Which gas is essential for burning? Name the useful important materials available in the ocean. What is called water cycle? How is soil formed? State the requirements that are essential for the existence of life on Earth.

In which layer of the Earth do you expect to find petroleum? If you breathe out over a glass plate, why the glass plate appears misty for some time? What happens to water when wet clothes dry? List out the uses of soil. From where do the fish get oxygen? Make a visit to the nearby planetorium and observatory station. List out the events observed. Measurement Measurement is necessary in everyday life. If we go to the textile shop to download the cloth for stitching shirt, we do not ask the seller to give one cloth.

If we go to the vegetable shop, we do not ask to give a little amount of potato. If we go to the provision store, we do not ask to give a little amount of sugar. What is the journey time of the bus from your village to town? In the textile shop, we ask for 1 metre cloth and the seller measures it using a scale.

In the provision store, we ask for 1 kilogram or 2 kilograms sugar and the seller measures it using a balance. The journey time of the bus is 30 minutes.

In the above cases, we measure the quantities like length, mass and time using a metre scale, a balance and the time watch. Hence measuring quantities with units like metre, kilogram and hour or minute plays an important role in our daily life. What is the size of your science book? At what distance your school 13 is located from your house? How much milk do you want?

What is the area of your class room? What is your mass? What is the time taken by you to complete metre running race?

Measurements are necessary to answer such questions. Without measurement we cannot make a correct judgement. A guess or a rough estimate may give a wrong answer. Science is concerned with finding out about the world, Why things happen? How things work? Early scientists, the ancient Greeks relied almost entirely on their senses.

They were good at observing and at suggesting explanations of what they saw, but without doing experiments. For example, Aristotle believed that heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects.

But we know it is wrong. Measurements have helped scientists and engineers to understand motion, how aeroplanes fly, how satellites behave, how machines work. Measurements make it easier to describe observations.

Careful measurement is an important work of any scientist. See the blackboard in your class room. What is its length? Let your answer be 2 metres. Here 2 is the number and metre is the unit of length. That is the length of the blackboard is two times the length of the fixed quantity metre called unit. Let your answer be 30 kilograms. Here 30 is the number and kilogram is the unit of mass. That is, your mass is 30 times the mass of the fixed quantity, kilogram, called unit.

Thus, every measurement consists of a number and a unit. The comparison of an unknown quantity with some known fixed quantity of the same kind is called measurement. The known fixed quantity is called unit. Different units Fig. Long ago, the lengths are measured with the units derived from some parts of the human body.

For example, width of four fingers, handspan, a cubit, a pace or a footstep and yard Fig. But these units were not reliable because the lengths of body parts are different for different people. For example, your teacher measures the length of the classroom in cubits. Let the answer be 15 cubits. If you measure the same length, the answer may be 20 cubits.

For the same length of class room, two different answers are given, if we use the unit cubit. Hence, cubit cannot be a standard one. Each measurement must mean the samething to every one. Therefore, everyone must use the common units of measurement called standard units like metre, kilogram and second. SI is the abbreviation of The system International D units. In the S I system i the unit of length is metre 15 ii the unit of mass is kilogram iii the unit of time is second 2.

The unit of force is newton The unit of work is joule. Symbol for metre is m It should not be as m. Symbol for second is s It should not be as s. Let the answer be 2 Km. Eventhough the distance, that is length is measured by the unit metre, we do not use metres.

What is the length of your pencil? Let the answer be 15 cm. What is the thickness of the coin? Let the answer be 2 mm. Hence greater distances are expressed in kilometres and smaller distances are expressed in centimetres and in millimetres.

That is, in multiples and submultiples of metre. Hence the mass is also expressed conveniently in terms of ton, and quintol, gram and milligram, which are respectively the multiples and submultiples of kilogram. Table 2. Therefore, the length of the object is 6.

Prick an inflated balloon with a pin. The air inside the balloon comes out with a force and noise Fig. What is the reason? The particles in a gas are far apart from each other and are held together by very weak forces of attraction.

So they move very easily. Gases have the property of fludity. Solubility of liquids Add a small quantity of ethyl alcohol to water. Alcohol completely mixes with water. Alcohol is completely soluble in water. Add a few drops of coconut oil and stir well. You will understand that oil does not mix with water. Oil is insoluble in water.

Solubility of gases How do aquatic living things breathe? Oxygen present in the air is soluble in water. So they breathe the oxygen dissolved in water. The marine plants take the carbon-di-oxide dissolved in sea-water for the photosynthesis. The soda water, we drink, is containing dissolved carbondi-oxide gas. Generally gases are soluble in water but certain gases like hydrogen and nitrogen are insoluble in water.

The substances which are insoluble in water may be soluble in some other solvents. Paints are insoluble in water.

But they are soluble in kerosene. Pour some water in each. Add a small quantity of sand in the first test tube, salt in the second test tube and starch powder in the third one and shake them. Sand does not dissolve in water. Salt completely dissolves. Starch powder is partially soluble.

Do you observe any change in volume? The volume of iron piece does not change. When pressure is applied over liquids their volume does not decrease. Place that end on a table and press the piston of the syringe downwards. The volume of the water does not decrease. When pressure is applied over gases, their volume decrease considerably.

Since the distance between the particles of a gas is more, they come closer when pressure is applied. Air is sucked in. Close the open end with a cork. Keep the closed end on a table and press the piston downwards. The piston moves easily as the air in the syringe gets compressed. Change of state due to heat i Solid liquid Take out some ice cubes from a refrigerator.

Place them in a cup and heat it. Solid ice melts into liquid water. The transformation of a solid matter into liquid when heated is called melting. The ice-deposits in the Himalayas melt due to heat of the Sun and flow as Ganga and Brhamaputra rivers.

Water boils and vapours of water steam come out. The transformation of a liquid into vapour by heating is called evaporation. The sea water evaporates due to Sun light and forms clouds in the sky. Steam gas heat Ice solid heat Water Liquid. Certain solids when heated, are converted to vapour state without passing through the liquid state.

This is called sublimation.

Substances like naphthalene, benzoic acid, iodine and ammonium chloride have the property of sublimation. Heat it. Stop heating and observe the change.

Change of state due to cooling i Gas Liquid We enjoy when it rains. How do we get the rain from the sky? The water vapour in the cloud gets cooled and forms tiny particles of water.

These water particles unite and form water drops which fall as rain. It does not melt into a liquid. But it evaporates into vapour. Observe the outer surface of the tumbler after sometime. What do you see? What do you understand?

Water drops get collected on the outer surface of the tumbler. This is due to the condensation of water vapour present in the atmospheric air. Or you must have seen such deposits of ice in the television pictures.

How does the ice get deposited on the mountains? Water gets cooled due to severe cold climate at high altitude and converted to ice. These ice particles deposit over the mountains and trees during winter Fig. The transformation of a liquid into solid due to cooling is called freezing.

The following representation gives you a clear understanding of change of states of matter. Diffusion of a gas in a gas When you return from school in the evening, you must have smelt the nice odour of your mother's spicy tiffin.

How are you able to get the smell of the food being prepared in the kitchen while you are at the entrance of your house? Visit an ice factory and see how ice creams are made. The vapours of the cooked food come out. The forces of attraction between the particles in a gas or vapour is very weak. So the particles separate and mix with the particles of.

When you breathe that air mixed with vapours of cooked food you feel the smell of the food. You will feel the pleasant odour of the agarbathi all over that room. This happens due to the diffusion of the vapours of agarbathi in air. Diffusion of a liquid in a liquid Pour a drop of blue ink into a beaker of water. The particles of ink diffuse through the particles of water and the whole water in the beaker turns blue.

Liquids diffuse slower than gases. Diffusion of solids in liquid Drop a small piece of potassium permanganate carefully into a beaker of water. You can see the pink colour of the crystal slowly diffusing through the water as the crystal dissolves.

The attractive force between the particles of potassium permanganate is removed by the particles of water. So the potassium permanganate particles get diffused in water. Since the particles of a solid have strong forces of attraction, diffusion of a solid in another solid does not take place naturally. This material, capable of leading in the proper direction is called as loadstone. A magnet has two poles namely North pole and South pole.

Poles are at the end of the magnet where the power of attraction is more. Like poles N-N and S-S repel each other. Unlike poles attract each other N-S and S-N. A magnet attracts iron, nickel and cobalt.

Magnets have no effect on wood, glass, aluminium, water, paper and plastic. These are known as non-magnetic substances. We are using the magnets in cranes to lift a heavy load See Fig. To remove any iron particle from the eyes, magnets are used. Impurities of iron could be removed from other metals using magnets. Magnets are available in electric bell, electric fan, telephone and electric motors.

We are using the magnets in doors, window catchers, door closers of almirahs and in beds. In the materials like wood and plastic, heat flows from one end to another very slowly.

Wood, paper, cloth and plastic are bad conductors of heat. The metal mercury, which is a liquid, is a good conductor of heat. So, we are using the mercury in thermometers. Gases are poor conductors of heat. When we switch on the light or fan or motor, electric current flows through the filament of the bulb or through the coil. Wires or cables carry the electric current.

Have you seen the electric cable? Take a piece of unused cable or wire.

Cut and open the outer coloured layer insulating material. Inside, you find a number of thin metal wires copper aluminium. These metal wires carry the current. Metals are good conductors of electricity. The outer coloured layer will not carry the current. This insulating material, paper, dry cloth and rubber are bad conductors of electricity and are called insulators.

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Pure water is a bad conductor of electricity. However, water what we are using containing dissolved salts conducts electricity. It is not advisable to touch the water in which electric These vessels are made of metals and also provided with handles made up of wood or some other non-metallic material like plastic. Why are the vessels provided with wooden or plastic handles? Take a vessel. Fill it with hot water. Put the two spoons in it.

One is made of metal like aluminium or stainless steel and the other is made of wood or plastic. After some time, touch the two spoons by your left and right hand.

Which one is hotter? The metal spoon is hotter than wooden spoon. Metals quickly conduct heat. So, metals are good conductors of heat. In metals, heat flows from one end to another quickly. Wooden spoon Hot water Metal spoon.

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It is advisible to always wear rubber chappals insulators and to keep the hands dry while operating electrical appliances. Thus, we conclude that matter can be classified as conductors of electricity and insulators. Switch it on. Take a paper, a dry cloth, a rubber sheet and an aluminium foil. Place them one by one in between the bulb and cell and check whether the torch lights up in each case. The torch does not light up with paper, dry cloth and rubber. But it lights up with the aluminium foil.

So aluminium conducts electric current. That is why electric wires are made. All these are opaque materials. Light cannot pass through them. We can see through a glass. So glass is a transparent material. We can see the fish in clean water. So clean water is also a transparent material. We are surrounded by air, and objects are always seen. So air is also transparent material.

We may conclude that the materials which allow the light to pass through them are called as transparent and those which do not allow the light are called as opaque. Which of the following does not change its shape at the room temperature? It has definite volume and mass.

During which process the volume of matter increases largely? You can feel the bad smell of the garbage at a distance. In thermometers, the liquid mercury is used. If you take equal volumes of water and sand, which will have more weight? How are you able to detect the leakage from a gas cylinder?

Does the force of attraction between the particles increase or decrease when a liquid substance is converted into a solid? Mention two solids that are insoluble in water. Solids are rigid. But the liquids and gases are not rigid. Liquids flow from higher to a lower level.

What do you understand from this? What is evaporation? Give an example. What is matter? Prove by an experiment that air has weight. Give an example to understand the gaseous diffussion. By an experiment how can you prove that volume of a gas can be reduced by applying pressure.

How do aquatic plants respire? Cooking vessels are provided with wooden handles. When you add a drop of ink to water what will happen? Separation of substances It is very essential that the food we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink and the different substances we use in our day-to-day life are pure.

As the environmental pollution is more nowadays, we must remove the pollutants and the unwanted components from them. Let us study about the different methods adopted in our daily life and laboratories to separate and purify the substances.

Pure substances have the following characters. Definite composition by nature. Definite physical properties such as melting point, boiling point and density. Homogeneous nature.

A mixture contains two or more pure substances which can be separated by easy physical methods. Table 4. Pure substances Mixtures i The components of a pure substance are of the same type The components of a mixture are of two or more types. Mixtures are heterogeneous in nature. They contain particles of different types.

Particles are uniform throughout the substance. Pure substances iii Pure substances have definite physical properties. Add water to it and stir well. Salt dissolves in water. Carefully observe the bottom of the container. You can see a deposit of fine sand.

The salt crystals that are obtained from sea water contain particles of sand which do not dissolve in water. So these sand particles settle at the bottom of the container. What will happen if we add the salt crystals directly to our food while cooking? Sand particles will mix with our food and affect our health.

So, while using crystals of salt for cooking it is better to use the solution of salt in water. Grains like rice, Mixtures Mixtures do not have definite physical properties. They have different physical properties depending upon the components present in it.

We can easily pick them and separate. If the size, colour and shape of the components are different, it is easy to separate them by hand picking Fig. This method is useful to remove the husk from grains like rice, wheat and ragi.

Farmers drop the mixture of grains and husk slowly from a height when the wind blows. Heavier grains fall directly on the ground as a heap. Husk being lighter are carried away by wind and fall as another heap separately Fig. The insoluble solids in water or lighter and heavier components of a mixture, can be separated by this method Fig.

If the components of a mixture are of different sizes, they can be separated by sieving method using a sieve. With the help of a sieve, broken particles of grains can be separated from its flour. During sieving, fine flour passes through the holes of the sieve while bigger particles remain in the sieve Fig. Activity 4. You can also remove worms or small insects from sooji or rava and purify it with the help of a sieve. The mixture containing solid and liquid components is allowed to stand for sometime.

The heavier particles settle at the bottom of the liquid. The process of settling down of insoluble particles in a suspension is called sedimentation. The process of transferring the clear liquid standing above the sediment carefully into another container using a glass rod is called decantation.

You know that peanut burfis are made by mixing the nuts with jaggery extract. When jaggery is mixed with hot water and allowed to stand for sometime the sand particles mixed with it settle at the bottom. This is separated by carefully decanting the clear jaggery liquid. You must have observed this at your home. Allow the water to stand for sometime without disturbing. Fine sand particles settle at the bottom.

This is called sedimentation. Clear water stands above the sand. Transfer this clear water into another vessel with the help of a glass rod as shown in the Fig.

Sand remains in the beaker. This method is called magnetic separation. The iron particles mixed with sand or sooji can be separated easily by a magnet. When the magnet is passed through the mixture, fine particles of iron get attracted by the magnet and stick to it. This can be removed later Fig.

Take it out. Again insert. Repeat it several times. You can see small particles of iron sticking to the magnet near the poles. Water, containing insoluble impurities is filtered by using a thin cotton cloth or filter paper.

When large quantities of substances are to be filtered, cotton, glass wool, charcoal or sand layers are used. In the laboratories we use filter paper for filtration. Filter paper is in the round form. Fold the circular filter paper first into a half circular shape. Then fold it again into a quarter circle. Arrange it in the form of a cone See Fig. Place the cone shaped filter paper into a glass funnel and fix it in a stand.

Place a flask below the stem of the funnel. Pour the water mixed with sand into the filter paper fitted in the funnel. Water passes through the filter paper and gets collected in the flask below. It is called the filtrate. The sand remains in the filter paper.

It is called the residue. By this method we get crystals of common salt from sea water. The process by which a liquid is converted into vapour by heating is called evaporation.

Let us know how we get the crystals of common salt from sea water. Sea water is passed on to the prepared land surface. It is called salt pan. The sea water evaporates by heat of the Sun. The salt remains in the land. Place the container on the wire gauze placed on a tripod stand.

Heat the container strongly. When the water evaporates salt is deposited in the container See Fig. To prepare crystals and to separate them from the impurities 'crystallisation' method is used.

Dissolve some copper sulphate crystals in water taken in a beaker. Dissolve as much as possible to get a saturated solution. Filter this solution and collect the filtrate in a china dish. When the vapours are cooled, they condense back to solid state. Substances like iodine, naphthalene and ammonium chloride have this property.

So these substances are purified by this method. Cover the dish by an inverted funnel. Plug the opening in the stem of the funnel with cotton. This prevents the exit of ammonium chloride vapours. Place the china dish on a wire gauze placed over a tripod stand. Heat the mixture well.

Ammonium chloride vapours rise above and deposit on the cooler side of the funnel. Sodium chloride remains in the dish since it does not undergo the process of sublimation.

Place the china dish on a tripod stand fitted with a wire gauze.

Heat the dish. You can see a crust forming on the upper layer of the solution. Cool the china dish and drain the liquid below. You can see the pure crystals depositing in the dish. These crystals can be dried using a filter paper. Some solid substances when heated are converted into gaseous state without melting into a liquid. The suitable method used to separate lighter particles from heavier ones in a mixture a Sieving b Winnowing c Crystallisation d Filtration Identify the mixture in the following a oxygen b milk c gold d silver When your mother makes tea from tea leaves, by which method does she get pure tea decoction?

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What is the need for the separation of a mixture. How is a mixture separated by winnowing? For what type of mixtures sieving is needed for separation? Can you use the method of magnetic separation to separate all mixtures? Give reason for your answer. Explain the method of using a filter paper. How is salt obtained from salt pans? How will you separate the mixture of camphor and salt? Write any two methods of separating lighter solid impurities from solid mixtures.

Explain the method of magnetic separation. How is a suspension purified by the method of filtration? Explain a method to separate a mixture of iodine and charcoal. Changes around us In our daily life, we observe many changes around us. Everything in this universe undergoes a change.

These changes may be observed by us at school, home, play ground or garden. For example sudden change in weather, flowering of plants, melting of ice, ripening of fruits, drying of clothes, milk changing into curd.

The changes can bring about different kinds of alterations in the things around us. Some of the alterations brought about are permanent in nature and hence cannot be reversed. However, some alterations are brought about in position, shape, size or state of the things. These alterations are temporary in nature and hence can be reversed.

Classification of changes: Ice on being warmed once again becomes water. When electricity is switched on, the filament in the bulb glows. When electricity is switched off, the filament returns to its original state. But it shrinks to its normal position when air is removed Fig.

Activity 5. Take a dry leaf and burn it. Which is a slow change here? Place some water in one dish and petrol in the other. Keep the two dishes in sunlight. Observe which is a slow change and which is a fast change? Irreversible change The change in which the product cannot be converted back into its original form reactant is called irreversible change. But from these products the candle cannot be obtained back.

You cannot get back the wood from the ash Fig. Paper cannot be obtained from ash and smoke. Differences between periodic and non-periodic changes are given in Table 5. Periodic They occur again and again at regular intervals of time. They can be predicted seasons It dissolves and forms a clear solution. Take two teaspoons of sugar in a china dish and heat it strongly. Sugar turns into a black powder charcoal with the liberation of steam.

Do you know the main difference between the above two processes. In the first case, sugar can be regenerated from the solution by It is a physical change. In the second case, sugar reactant cannot be obtained from the products charcoal and steam. It is a chemical change. A physical change is a temporary change during which no new substance is formed. Characteristics i No new substance is formed during a physical change. It melts into water. The heat from the mouth makes the ice melt.

Chemical change A chemical change is a permanent change in which entirely new substances are formed with different properties. Characteristics i It is a permanent change ii It is irreversible iii New substances are formed iv Energy in the form of heat or light is either absorbed or released. Keep them exposed to air. After a few days you will notice that the iron fillings are coated with brown rust. Unlike iron, this rust is not attracted by a magnet. You cannot get back the iron from this rust.

Hence rusting is a chemical change. We get ash from the paper. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Previous Page 1 2 Class 1. Class 2. Class 3. Class 4. Class 5. Class 7. Class 9. Class Additional Languages.

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