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IP Routing Fundamentals. Introduction q. An Introduction to Internetworking q. Understanding Internetwork Addresses q. Routers and LANs q. Routers and. Walker, Jearl. Fundamentals of physics / Jearl Fundamenta. Expert and the first of two volumes that focuses on TCP/IP routing issues. Early in bit size. Networking - Cisco IP Routing maroc-evasion.info Pages · · MB · Downloads · Data Center maroc-evasion.info - The Cisco Learning Network .

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Ip Routing Fundamentals Pdf

The Fundamentals of Routing. EE Fall Later in course will talk about real IP addressing. 10 Decision is based on routing state (table) in switch. All you need to know about TCP/IP. maroc-evasion.infont Network Routing Basics Understanding IP Routing in Cisco maroc-evasion.info ( MB) View. (Ebook Pdf) Networking Cisco Ip Routing Fundamentals (1).

While it is certainly vast and contains immense amounts of information, new users and new networks come online every day. Yet, it has been around since the late s. As new technologies enabled people to discover new ways to use and enhance the network, the network grew and evolved. The Internet is a work in progress and will continue to grow and evolve into the future. Evolution of the Internet Key developments made a huge impact and paved the way for the recent dynamic growth of the Internet. Perhaps we can get a sense of where it is headed in the future. The cold war was at a peak in the U. ARPANET needed to meet two strict mandates: Communication must not depend on a centralized command center, which would make it vulnerable to attack. Communication must not shut down, even if a switch or path failed. In December of , the first decentralized packet-switching network came online. The initial ability of networking to share research information and computer facilities across great distances soon evolved into a form of communication among scientists, who exchanged news and personal messages. This, coupled with the decentralized structure, meant that it was relatively easy to connect to the network.

Compatibility: IP allows any pair of connected computers to communicate, regardless of size, location, or manufacturer. Hosting: IP supports client-server computing, where user devices share information or applications located on a server or host. Scalability: IP works with computers of all sizes, including PCs, workstations, minicomputers, mainframes, and supercomputers.

The network at the corporate headquarters is comprised of several interconnected LANs. The LANs, in turn, connect to the Internet. The convention for this image is that each cloud depicts many interconnected networks, but for simplicity they are not shown. Think of them as being there, but just not in focus. You also see a branch office, which has one or more LANs that also connect to the Internet.

And finally, you see a remote user that can dial back into the company network through the Internet. The physical elements of an IP network generally fall into two basic categories: network types and hardware components. The IP Suite software is also present as an additional network component within the devices, enabling all of the elements to work together.

A wide variety of network types can be connected to and part of the Internet. For example, a LAN can be a network connecting computer equipment on a campus or within a building, in a defined area. In contrast, a WAN is a network spanning a large geographic area, such as a state or a country.

Frame Relay, X. Servers are the computers on a network that run the programs that are accessed by user devices. Routers join, or connect, networks together and direct messages between networks by sending them on appropriate paths.

Software Components IP is the networking software protocol suite that enables the various networks and their components to work together. The IP Suite is also used by applications, most of which are client-server style.

IP Addressing Fundamentals

The client is the software running on a workstation or PC, that can request information from a remote computer that is running the server software program.

Client-server applications allow users to share the information held on a server. Hardware, network, and software components are all involved. How a Message Travels Across the Network In this next section, we will follow a single message from one edge of the Internet to the other, to examine what events take place and which of the components previously discussed are involved at each step of the way.

How a Message Travels 18 of 32 1. As shown in the figure below, you create a message at computer 1, which is connected to Branch Office network 1. The message is sent across several LANs and through the Internet to the Corporate Network, network 2, where it is delivered to computer 4, your friends computer Message Across the Network Before we go further, we need to define some terms.

A source computer is the computer where the message is created. A destination computer is connected to a destination network, and is the recipient of a message. For now, we will use a simplified networking address format, which is not correct addressing structure, but will demonstrate the general addressing principles. In our example, you will send a message to your friends computer, which has the simplified ID of 4. It is connected to network 2, so the address is designated as network2,computer4 and is the destination address.

The source computer, your computer, is designated as network1,computer1. Addresses in our example are similar to true IP addresses only in that they follow the two-part representation of an IP address: network and host.

IP Network Addressing 20 of 32 1. In this example, we start by creating a message in the Branch Office. Indicate you want to send a graphics file. When the program prompts you for an address, enter network2,computer4. The IP software on your computer breaks up your graphics file into smaller pieces or packets, and attaches addresses to each one.

Then, the message is sent on the LAN. If the destination computer is on the same network with the source computer, the IP software sends it locally. If the destination computer is on a different network, the IP software sends the message to a router Action 2.

The IP software, also running on the router, must find a route for the messages. It does this by using the destination network ID address attached to your message. Routers use tables to look up addresses and determine the best route. The steps are listed below.

The router notes the destination network address on the message. The router accesses a table that lists the destination network addresses. When the router software finds the destination network address, it retrieves the instructions for sending the message. The message is then sent along the way, and travels one step closer to its destination.

In our case, it goes out to the Internet. Beyond the Local Network 22 of 32 1. We revisit these in detail in a later lesson. The Internet is made up of a multitude of independent networks that communicate with one another. Routers connect these networks. Messages often pass through dozens of different networks, and get shuffled from router to router on the path toward their final destination.

Yet when you send a message, all of this is invisible to you. Choosing a Path 1. Between each pair of networks are routers.

The processing at this intermediary router happens repeatedly at each network as it steps closer and closer to the destination network: 1. A router receives the message and hands it to the IP software responsible for sending packets over the Internet toward their destination computer. The software examines the destination addresses on the message, and determines if the destination computer resides on the same local network as the router. If it does, it sends the message directly to the computer on the local network.

If the software determines that the message is addressed to a distant network, the routing table software and IP work together to forward the message to the next router along its path. Action 5: Message Arrives at Destination Finally, the message arrives at network 2, on which your friends computer is located. The network at the corporate headquarters is comprised of several interconnected LANs.

The LANs, in turn, connect to the Internet. The convention for this image is that each cloud depicts many interconnected networks, but for simplicity they are not shown. Think of them as being there, but just not in focus.

You also see a branch office, which has one or more LANs that also connect to the Internet.

IP Routing Fundamentals

And finally, you see a remote user that can dial back into the company network through the Internet. The physical elements of an IP network generally fall into two basic categories: network types and hardware components.

The IP Suite software is also present as an additional network component within the devices, enabling all of the elements to work together. A wide variety of network types can be connected to and part of the Internet.

Top 60 CCNA Interview Questions and Answers (Updated for 2018)

For example, a LAN can be a network connecting computer equipment on a campus or within a building, in a defined area. In contrast, a WAN is a network spanning a large geographic area, such as a state or a country. Frame Relay, X.

Servers are the computers on a network that run the programs that are accessed by user devices. Routers join, or connect, networks together and direct messages between networks by sending them on appropriate paths. Software Components IP is the networking software protocol suite that enables the various networks and their components to work together. The IP Suite is also used by applications, most of which are client-server style.

The client is the software running on a workstation or PC, that can request information from a remote computer that is running the server software program. Client-server applications allow users to share the information held on a server. Hardware, network, and software components are all involved. How a Message Travels Across the Network In this next section, we will follow a single message from one edge of the Internet to the other, to examine what events take place and which of the components previously discussed are involved at each step of the way.

How a Message Travels 18 of 32 1. As shown in the figure below, you create a message at computer 1, which is connected to Branch Office network 1. The message is sent across several LANs and through the Internet to the Corporate Network, network 2, where it is delivered to computer 4, your friends computer Message Across the Network Before we go further, we need to define some terms.

A source computer is the computer where the message is created. A destination computer is connected to a destination network, and is the recipient of a message. For now, we will use a simplified networking address format, which is not correct addressing structure, but will demonstrate the general addressing principles. In our example, you will send a message to your friends computer, which has the simplified ID of 4. It is connected to network 2, so the address is designated as network2,computer4 and is the destination address.

The source computer, your computer, is designated as network1,computer1. Addresses in our example are similar to true IP addresses only in that they follow the two-part representation of an IP address: network and host. IP Network Addressing 20 of 32 1.

Top 7 TCP/IP Utilities For Networking Pros | Pluralsight

In this example, we start by creating a message in the Branch Office. Indicate you want to send a graphics file. When the program prompts you for an address, enter network2,computer4. The IP software on your computer breaks up your graphics file into smaller pieces or packets, and attaches addresses to each one.

Then, the message is sent on the LAN. If the destination computer is on the same network with the source computer, the IP software sends it locally. If the destination computer is on a different network, the IP software sends the message to a router Action 2.

The IP software, also running on the router, must find a route for the messages. It does this by using the destination network ID address attached to your message. Routers use tables to look up addresses and determine the best route.

The steps are listed below. The router notes the destination network address on the message. The router accesses a table that lists the destination network addresses. When the router software finds the destination network address, it retrieves the instructions for sending the message. The message is then sent along the way, and travels one step closer to its destination. In our case, it goes out to the Internet.

Beyond the Local Network 22 of 32 1. We revisit these in detail in a later lesson. The Internet is made up of a multitude of independent networks that communicate with one another. Routers connect these networks. Messages often pass through dozens of different networks, and get shuffled from router to router on the path toward their final destination. Yet when you send a message, all of this is invisible to you.

Choosing a Path 1. Between each pair of networks are routers. The processing at this intermediary router happens repeatedly at each network as it steps closer and closer to the destination network: 1.

A router receives the message and hands it to the IP software responsible for sending packets over the Internet toward their destination computer. The software examines the destination addresses on the message, and determines if the destination computer resides on the same local network as the router.

If it does, it sends the message directly to the computer on the local network. If the software determines that the message is addressed to a distant network, the routing table software and IP work together to forward the message to the next router along its path.

Action 5: Message Arrives at Destination Finally, the message arrives at network 2, on which your friends computer is located.

The router receives the message and checks the destination address. When the router determines the destination network address matches the address of the network it is attached to, it sends it directly to your friends computer, computer4. Message Arrives at Destination 1.

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