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UNDANG-UNDANG DASAR. NEGARA REPUBLIK INDONESIA. TAHUN PEMBUKAAN. (P r e a m b u l e). Bahwa sesungguhnya Kemerdekaan itu ialah. (PDF) | UUD; (PDF) | UUD Perubahan Pertama; (PDF) | UUD Perubahan Kedua; (PDF) | UUD Perubahan Ketiga; (PDF) | UUD Menimbang: a. bahwa negara Republik Indonesia berdasarkan Pancasila dan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia. Tahun menjamin.

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Uud 1945 Pdf

AMANDEMEN UNDANG-UNDANG DASAR SEBAGAI CARA UNTUK MEMPERKUAT PERANAN DAN KEDUDUKAN DEWAN PERWAKILAN DAERAH Dl. The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia of PREAMBLE. Whereas independence is a genuine right of all nations and any form of alien occupation. Menimbang: a. bahwa Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia berdasarkan. Pancasila dan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik. Indonesia Tahun .

Pasal 18[ sunting ] I. Oleh karena Negara Indonesia itu suatu eenheidsstaat, maka Indonesia tak akan mempunyai daerah di dalam lingkungannya yang bersifat staat juga. Daerah Indonesia akan dibagi dalam daerah propinsi dan daerah propinsi akan dibagi pula dalam daerah yang lebih kecil. Di daerah-daerah yang bersifat otonom streek dan locale rechtsgemeenschappen atau bersifat daerah administrasi belaka, semuanya menurut aturan yang akan ditetapkan dengan undang-undang. Di daerah-daerah yang bersifat otonom akan diadakan badan perwakilan daerah, oleh karena di daerah pun pemerintahan akan bersendi atas dasar permusyawaratan. Dalam teritori Negara Indonesia terdapat lebih kurang zelfbesturende landchappen dan volksgetneenschappen, seperti desa di Jawa dan Bali, negeri di Minangkabau, dusun dan marga di Palembang dan sebagainya. Daerah-daerah itu mempunyai susunan asli, dan oleh karenanya dapat dianggap sebagai daerah yang bersifat istimewa. Negara Republik Indonesia menghormati kedudukan daerah-daerah istimewa tersebut dan segala peraturan negara yang mengenai daerah-daerah itu akan mengingati hak-hak asal-usul daerah tersebut. Dewan ini harus memberi persetujuannya kepada tiap-tiap rancangan undang-undang dari pemerintah. Pun Dewan mempunyai hak inisiatif untuk menetapkan undang-undang. Dewan ini mempunyai juga hak begrooting pasal Dengan ini, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat mengontrol pemerintah. Harus diperingati pula bahwa semua anggota Dewan ini merangkap menjadi anggota Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat. Pasal 22[ sunting ] Pasal ini mengenai noodverordeningsrecht Presiden.

Banyak diplomat asing, tampaknya, bersandar di kursi mereka dan menarik napas lega. Kelegaan seperti itu, bagaimanapun, tidak pada tempatnya. Jauh dari menyangkal bahwa dia ingin menghapus pemilihan langsung, sebetulnya Prabowo memberi pembenaran baru atas ide ini di acara tersebut. Ini telah menjadi argumen yang dikemukakan oleh birokrat di Kementerian Dalam Negeri selama beberapa tahun terakhir ini, yang menyerukan kembalinya pemilihan eksekutif daerah kepada DPRD.

Jelas, Prabowo sedang memanfaatkan sentimen luas tentang biaya tinggi pemilihan langsung untuk mempersiapkan perombakan terhadap sistem elektoral. Dan walaupun contoh-contoh yang disebutkan Prabowo pada tanggal 30 Juni rata-rata terkait pemilihan lokal, sulit untuk menghindari kesimpulan bahwa dia sedang berbicara tentang tingkat nasional juga. Menariknya, dia menghindari secara eksplisit untuk memberikan jaminan bahwa dia akan menghadapi lagi para pemilih dalam waktu lima tahun untuk dimintai pertanggungjawaban oleh para pemilih.

Namun, berbeda dengan pidatonya di TIM, Prabowo menunjukkan bahwa dia telah membicarakan masalah ini dengan mitra koalisinya — yang jelas berarti bahwa pernyataannya TIM bukan hanya pernyataan spontan yang tidak mewakili pemikiran yang dalam atau mencerminkan rencana konkrit. Menurut Prabowo. Dimodelkan pada Westminster? Retorika Prabowo mengingatkan kita pada Demokrasi Pancasila Suharto — sebuah sistem yang menegakkan pemilu sebagai sumber legitimasi tetapi mengurangi maknanya menjadi ritual lima-tahunan yang hasilnya bisa diprediksi.

Pernyataan ini menghapus semua keraguan bahwa Prabowo berpikir untuk menghapuskan pemilihan langsung tidak hanya di tingkat daerah, seperti beberapa pendukungnya telah sarankan, tetapi juga untuk presiden.

Memang, apa yang Prabowo katakan di sini adalah, paling tidak secara teori, persis yang akan terjadi kalau Indonesia kembali ke UUD yang asli: sebuah partai yang memenangkan pemilihan di parlemen dapat menjamin bahwa calonnya kemudian terpilih sebagai presiden oleh MPR.

Soeharto dulu terpilih kembali sebanyak enam kali dengan cara ini. Namun, akan menjadi naif untuk menafsirkan penyebutan mendadak Prabowo ke sistem Westminster sebagai ajakan kepada masyarakat untuk membahas kemungkinan pergeseran Indonesia menuju sistem parlementer. Tidak ada dalam pernyataan Prabowo sebelumnya, pidato ataupun platform, yang menunjukkan bahwa dia bersimpati pada demokrasi parlementer.

Dengan demikian, demokrasi Westminster, di mana perdana menteri bertanggung jawab kepada anggota parlemen dan sangat tergantung pada mereka sebetulnya,sangat jauh dari apa yang Prabowo telah umumkan sebagai tujuan politik utamanya, yaitu, sistem presidensial terpusat dan kuat. Satu-satunya unsur demokrasi Westminster yang menarik baginya, tampaknya, adalah unsur pemilihan langsung kepala eksekutif oleh legislatif.

Namun, kemiripannya terbatas pada satu aspek saja: tidak adanya pemilihan langsung bagi pemimpin tinggi pemerintah baik di sistem Westminster maupun di bawah UUD Implikasi perubahan Bagi kami tidak ada ada sedikit keraguan bahwa Prabowo ingin menghapuskan pemilihan langsung.

SISTEM PERWAKILAN DALAM MAJELIS PERMUSYAWARATAN RAKYAT PASCA AMANDEMEN UUD 1945

Apakah itu masalah penting? Seperti Prabowo katakan, beberapa negara demokratik memang memilih kepala pemerintahan mereka secara tidak langsung melalui parlemen. The US president is the holder of the highest executive power. In addition, the power of the US president is also listed in Article I section 7. From these various arrangements, it can be seen that the US president has not only the executive power such as administration, foreign relation, judiciary and etc but also has the authority that is within the scope of legislative and judicial powers.

Penemuan Hukum, Sebuah Pengantar. First Edition. According to Saldi Isra, in terms of legislation function, the United States is the first country which explicitly separate the function of legislative and executive institutions in the process of forming the laws. Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist Paper 24, 26 and 28, states that the separation of the legislative and executive powers is seen as part of the effort to prevent the formation of laws that harm the people so that the public confidence can be maintained There is no article states in the Constitution of the United States determines that the president has the authority to file a draft law through a process which is known as the Executive Communication, it is by submitting a draft bill that is completed with a letter of introduction to the eadership of senate and DPR Pataniari Siahaan, According to C.

The United States Constitution also leaves no room for the government president and ministers to participate in the draft legislation Isra, This mechanism is called by public hearings or a kind of hearing to ask for input or testimony from certain parties government agencies, judiciary, experts, 9 Pataniari Siahaan, Politik Huk um Pembentukan Undang-Undang Pasca Amandemen UUD The strict separation between the branches of legislative and executive powers which can be seen from the basic framework of the presidential government system is puts the legislature in full control of the legislative agenda and process.

The executive has a very limited role and its involvement in the legislation process only takes place through the authority to reject od accept the draft laws which previously discussed and approved by the legislature.

The fifth French Republican Constitution is designed to limit the powers of parliament and place the executive as the central power of the state.

France semi-presidenstial government system adheres to dual-executive, the president as the head of state sharing the power government with the prime minister.

As described by Bagir Manan 13, the president of French exercises a real power exercises the power of government eventhough not all of the governmental power is in his hand. The power sharing between the president and the prime minister becomes an important point for understanding the legislative function of the model of semi-presidential government system.

But in the French model, the position of the president has its own uniqueness in which the president becomes a central point with great authority to control the running of the 12 Pataniari Siahaan, Politik Hukum Pembentukan Undang-Undang P asca Amandemen UUD The character of the legislative function in semi-presidential government system is that the prime minister and every parliamentarian have the right to file a draft law.

But the draft law which proposed by the executive must be the main priority because it is the government that determines constitutionally the legislative agenda in the legislature The government organizes the parliamentary agenda and it is a top priority in the formation of legislation.

During the talks in the national assembly, the government may contribute to the whole or part of the draft law which is being discussed and then to be considered as input and adoption, unless the parliament rejects it.

The draft laws already approved by the National Assembly are then sent by the prime minister to the president to be ratified and enacted properly within 15 days since the draft being submitted. Prior to the amendment of UUD , the establishment of the law is based on the article 5 paragraph 1 and article 20 of UUD Article 5 paragraph 1 stipulates that the legislation powers are in the hands of president with the approval of parliament DPR.

Article 5 paragraph 1 is one of the articles included in Chapter III on the power of the state government which also 14 Abdul Latif. Kreasi Total Media.

Therefore the power of forming the law as meant in article 5 paragraph 1 can be interpreted to be within the scope of governmental power with the president as its organ as determined in article 4 paragraph 1 of UUD before the amendment. The matter of the law formation is also regulated in article 20 paragraph 1 of UUD before the amendment which confirms that the implementation of the power of the law formation by the president absolutely requires the approval from the parliament DPR.

In paragraph 2 stipulated if the bill does not get the approval from the House of Representatives DPR , then the draft law should not be submitted again in the DPR session at that time.

However, the power to form the law remains in the hands of the president because chapter 20 and the other articles in UUD after the amendment did not mention explicitly that DPR holds the power to form the laws. The constitution of the United States of Republic Indonesia RIS puts three institutions as well as the subject of the holder of the power to form the laws, they are the government, DRP and the senates.

The terms of legislation are governed in articles of the RIS constitution. The executives are actively involved in the legislative process from the stage of submission, discussion, approval, and endorsement. The degree of the executive dependence on parliamentary support and the lack of a clear separation between the executive and the legislative branches become an important part in explaining the function of the legislation in the government system The prevailing principles is the supremacy of parliament which places the 17 17 Saldi Isra, Pergeseran Fungsi Legislasi: However, in the absence of the strict separation and duplicate positions, the executives also participate in the legislative process of legislation.

UUD 1945 (Naskah Asli)

This provision at the same time implies that the state of Indonesia is a democratic country which is restricted by the law made on the basis of the people will democratische rechtstaat; constitutional democracy state. With the assertion of the sovereignty locus in the hands of the people, any state institution that carries out the functions of the state and government beyond the judicial power is the exercise of the people 18 sovereignty and must submit and be accountable to the people.

The power transfer of the law formation from the president to the house os representatives DPR is one part of the effort to restructure the position of the executive and legislative relations in the administration of the state government.

An imbalance due to the considerable authority of the presidential legislation can create the presidential dominance in the formation of laws and it potentially trigger abbuse of power by the president. The power of the presidential legislation after the amendment of UUD is inappropiate if placed with the framework of a presidential government system. Even the power of presidential legislation after the amendment of UUD cannot be understood from the standpoint of any system government which develops in the modern democratic era which emphasizes the power of forming legislation in DPR institution.

Lembaran Negara

The presidential government system paces the legislature as an institution which has a wider power than the executive. The interference of the executive in the legislation process is not in line with the nature of legislation. The position of the legislature in a presidential government system embraces the explicit separation of the status and the function of the executive and legislative power branch in the administration of state power. The right of presidential initiative as stipulated in Article 5 paragraph 1 of UUD is not unusual in the practice of legislation in the presidential government system.

The drafting of the law is a routine task of members of DPR as a manifestation of the legislative function of the DPR. The drafting of laws by the executive is a hallmark of the parliamentary system because in the executive parliamentary system is part of legislature as a result of the absence of a strict separation of the executive and legislative branches.

Problematika Hukum

The right of presidential initiative as regulated in Article 5 paragraph 1 of UUD obscures the position of president as the holder of the executive power and DPR as the holder of legislative power. The submission of a bill by the president should be possible by members of DPR from the presidential political party. DPR members are more passive and less creative in the legislation process.

The right of presidential initiative makes it easier for the president to impose his political agenda to be embodied in legislation.

The law no. The provision of Law no.

Especially if the majority of DPR seats are controlled by the government party or coalition of party supporters of the government, it will be easier for the president to impose his political agenda to be embodied into law. The combination of executive dominance and the poor quality and passive attitude of DPR members assembly in the filing of laws, and the configuration of political power maps in DPR, can easily be read as a worrying dynamics if it runs out that the proposed of the draft law is not in the line with the will of the people.

Under these circumstances, the strategic role of the Constitutional Court MA is needed to balance and control the legislative products which produce by the president and DPR to ensure that the product of the law is not contrary to the constitutional principles.

The right of DPR members to propose a draft law as stipulated in Article 21 of UUD , has not contributed significantly in compensating the right of the presiden initiative, this is because the draft law proposed by DPR is just a proposal and not the meaning of the whole law as understood in the right of president initiative in article 5 paragraph 1 of UUD After the proposed draft law from the members of DPR is discussed and approved in the plenary session of DPR, the draft is subsequently sent to the president for questioning as well as a letter requestiong that the president appoint a minister who will represent the president in discussing the draft law with DPR.

This letter of DPR is often practicely interpreted as a request for the president approval of the draft law which is sent by DPR. The advanced mechanism of the proposed draft law submitted by the members of DPR is only stipulated in Law no.

Dewan ini harus memberi persetujuannya kepada tiap-tiap rancangan undang-undang dari pemerintah. Pun Dewan mempunyai hak inisiatif untuk menetapkan undang-undang. Dewan ini mempunyai juga hak begrooting pasal Dengan ini, Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat mengontrol pemerintah. Harus diperingati pula bahwa semua anggota Dewan ini merangkap menjadi anggota Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat. Pasal 22[ sunting ] Pasal ini mengenai noodverordeningsrecht Presiden.

Aturan sebagal ini memang perlu diadakan agar supaya keselamatan negara dapat dijamin oleh pemerintah dalam keadaan yang genting, yang memaksa pemerintah untuk bertindak lekas dan tepat. Meskipun demikian, pemerintah tidak akan terlepas dari pengawasan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat.

Oleh karena itu, peraturan pemerintah dalam pasal ini, yang kekuatannya sama dengan undang-undang harus disahkan pula oleh Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. Cara menetapkan anggaran pendapatan dan belanja adalah suatu ukuran bagi sifat pemerintahan negara. Dalam negara yang berdasarkan fascisme, anggaran itu ditetapkan semata-mata oleh pemerintah.

Tetapi dalam negara demokrasi atau dalam negara yang berdasarkan kedaulatan rakyat, seperti Republik Indonesia, anggaran pendapatan dan belanja itu ditetapkan dengan undang-undang.

Artinya dengan persetujuan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. Betapa caranya rakyat sebagai bangsa akan hidup dan dari mana didapatnya belanja buat hidup, harus ditetapkan oleh rakyat itu sendiri, dengan perantaraan dewan perwakilannya.

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