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In babies weight gain is dramatic is first twelve months. The babies grow in height dramatically from 12 months to 24 months.
The body measurements of the baby are often expressed as percentile. It is point of scale ranging from 0 to , where each baby is compared to others at same age. If an infant is consistently 20 th percentile, it is not a concern, as the body weight and height vary due to genetic diversity. However, if the percentile changes drastically, then it is to be looked into.
The low percentile might be because of cultural difference. Perfectly healthy newborn can be smaller or larger depending on its continental culture such as Asian, African etc.
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Meanwhile, Mentemu avoided any direct military expedition against Kublai's realm. The armies of Mongol Persia defeated Baraq's invading forces in When Baraq died the next year, Kaidu took control of the Chagatai Khanate and recovered his alliance with Mentemu. Meanwhile, Kublai tried to stabilize his control over the Korean Peninsula by mobilizing another Mongol invasion after he enthroned Wonjong of Goryeo r.
Kublai also forced two rulers of the Golden Horde and the Ilkhanate to call a truce with each other in despite the Golden Horde's interests in the Middle East and the Caucasus. After the fall of Xiangyang in , Kublai's commanders, Aju and Liu Zheng, proposed a final campaign against the Song Dynasty, and Kublai made Bayan of the Baarin the supreme commander. When he moved his headquarters to Khanbaliq , also called Dadu, at modern-day Beijing, there was an uprising in the old capital Karakorum that he barely contained.
Kublai's actions were condemned by traditionalists and his critics still accused him of being too closely tied to Han Chinese culture. They sent a message to him: "The old customs of our Empire are not those of the Han Chinese laws What will happen to the old customs?
The Song imperial family surrendered to the Yuan in , making the Mongols the first non-Han Chinese peoples to conquer all of China. Three years later, Yuan marines crushed the last of the Song loyalists. The Song Empress Dowager and her grandson, Emperor Gong of Song , were then settled in Khanbaliq where they were given tax-free property, and Kublai's wife Chabi took a personal interest in their well-being. However, Kublai later had Emperor Gong sent away to become a monk to Zhangye.
Kublai succeeded in building a powerful empire, created an academy, offices, trade ports and canals and sponsored science and the arts.
The record of the Mongols lists 20, public schools created during Kublai's reign. Mongol invasions of Japan and , the third invasion of Vietnam —8 , and the invasion of Java failed.
At the same time, Kublai's nephew Ilkhan Abagha tried to form a grand alliance of the Mongols and the Western European powers to defeat the Mamluks in Syria and North Africa that constantly invaded the Mongol dominions. Abagha and Kublai focused mostly on foreign alliances, and opened trade routes. Khagan Kublai dined with a large court every day, and met with many ambassadors and foreign merchants.
Kublai's son Nomukhan and his generals occupied Almaliq from to However, Kaidu took control over Almaliq. French National Archives. In —80, Kublai decreed death for those who performed slaughtering of cattle according to the legal codes of Islam dhabihah or Judaism kashrut , which offended Mongolian custom.
After the execution of Ahmad Fanakati , Kublai confirmed Arghun's coronation and awarded his commander in chief Buqa the title of chancellor. Konchi, khan of the White Horde , established friendly relations with the Yuan and the Ilkhanate, and as a reward received luxury gifts and grain from Kublai.
Kublai heavily relied on his Chinese advisers until about He had many Han Chinese advisers, such as Liu Bingzhong and Xu Heng , and employed many Buddhist Uyghurs, some of whom were resident commissioners running Chinese districts.
In , after the Phags pa Lama created the 'Phags-pa script , he was promoted to imperial preceptor. During Phagspa's absence in Tibet, the Tibetan monk Sangha rose to high office and had the office renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.
However, their[ whose? Antong of the Jalairs and Bayan of the Baarin served as grand councillors from , and Oz-temur of the Arulad headed the censorate. Borokhula's descendant, Ochicher, headed a kheshig Mongolian imperial guard and the palace provision commission. To unify China,  Kublai began a massive offensive against the remnants of the Southern Song in and finally destroyed the Song in , unifying the country at last at the Battle of Yamen where the last Song Emperor Zhao Bing committed suicide by jumping into the sea and ending the Song dynasty.
Most of the Yuan domains were administered as provinces, also translated as the "Branch Secretariat", each with a governor and vice-governor. It was considered the most important region of the dynasty and was directly governed by the Zhongshu Sheng at Dadu. Tibet was governed by another top-level administrative department called the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. Kublai promoted economic growth by rebuilding the Grand Canal , repairing public buildings, and extending highways.
However, his domestic policy included some aspects of the old Mongol living traditions, and as his reign continued, these traditions would clash increasingly frequently with traditional Chinese economic and social culture. Kublai decreed that partner merchants of the Mongols should be subject to taxes in and set up the Office of Market Taxes to supervise them in In , maritime trade was put under the Office of Market Taxes.
The main source of revenue of the government was the monopoly of salt production.
To guard against devaluation, the currency was convertible with silver and gold, and the government accepted tax payments in paper currency. In , Kublai issued a new series of state sponsored bills to finance his conquest of the Song, although eventually a lack of fiscal discipline and inflation turned this move into an economic disaster.
It was required to pay only in the form of paper money. To ensure its use, Kublai's government confiscated gold and silver from private citizens and foreign merchants, but traders received government-issued notes in exchange.