The Three Little Pigs. A Reading A–Z Level M Leveled Book. Word Count: maroc-evasion.info Retold by Alyse Sweeney. Illustrated by Roberta Collier-. So the three little pigs packed their little knap sacks and headed up the lane to see if they could make a house to live in. PDF created with pdfFactory trial version. Once upon a time there were three little pigs and the time came for them to The first little pig built his house out of straw because it was the easiest thing to do.
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Once upon a time there were three little pigs who lived with their mother. One day their mother told them they were old enough to go out into the. “The Story of the Three Little Pigs”. Three pigs meet a persistent wolf and guess what happens? LCCN: maroc-evasion.info; Published/Created: London . Once upon a time there were three little pigs. One day their mother said, “You are old now. You can make your own houses.” Mrs. Pig kissed each little pig on the.
You can take advantage of their knowledge of this story in the classroom by using it as a mentor text to teach a number of concepts, including story structure and creating characters. But beware, the ending of the story is a little gruesome!
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Keep in Touch! He was keen for his stories to be recorded and very comfortable speaking into the microphone, as he had previously participated in similar activities with therapists. The sessions were audio-taped on a SONY Professional Walkman and videotaped using an analog video recorder which was placed unobtrusively on a tripod at one side of the room.
The audio and video tapes were subsequently digitized. However, there are distinct variations between the first and second versions. One of the striking characteristics is that they incorporate different propositional content. The key elements of the story are present in each, as are, to some extent, the formulaic expressions one would expect for any retelling of this story.
Nevertheless, there are some noteworthy differences. In particular, the second story contains much more additional information which is a reflection of the different storytelling strategy employed by Lincoln: in this version, there is a much more clearly defined role for the narrator in the inclusion of scene transitions, more detailed scene and mood setting, and a stronger focus on character interactions.
Lincoln is clearly operating with a story schema upon which he elaborates in different ways each time he tells the story. In sum, Lincoln attempts a more ambitious storytelling task in the second version.
This is concordant with our impression at the time that he was keen for the opportunity to present what he felt was an improved version of the story. The second story was also subjectively more dysfluent, in ways we will investigate below. The following examples illustrate how the content of the second version of the story is enlarged from the basic story schema.
Most often it was the setting which was elaborated, however in some cases, interactions between the characters were expanded. H Hx H Hx total elapsed time between words 3. Hx 48 1. There is additional information in the description of the first little pig building his house lines , however the scene settings and transitions are sparse, and the exchange between the first little pig and the wolf contains the formulaic expressions traditionally associated with this story.
In contrast, the excerpt from the second retelling 1a contains descriptive scene transitions lines and , detailed scene setting lines , and the exchange between the first little pig and the wolf is quite a departure from the formulaic dialogue in 1b. Analysis of pauses and cognitive complexity 3. Impressionistically, there are many long pauses and many repairs such as in examples 1a and b , while at the same time Lincoln produces very rich and, in many ways, sophisticated narratives.
As outlined in the previous section, this is particularly the case in the second retelling.
There has been only a small amount of previous work on dysfluency and repair in the speech of children with autism Baltaxe ; Epstein ; Geller ; Volden Moreover, only the study by Thurber and Tager-Flusberg has considered dysfluency in narrative production. A total of thirty children ten in each group were asked to tell the story depicted in the wordless picture story book Frog, Where Are You?
Previous research indicates that pausing behaviour in speech tasks is related to the level of cognitive demand required. Thurber and Tager-Flusberg hypothesised that the narratives of children with autism would contain fewer non-grammatical pauses than either typically developing children or children with intellectual disabilities.
They investigated the frequency of pauses, false starts and repetitions in the narratives of each group. Their results indicate that while there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of repetitions and false starts in the narratives, or in the number of grammatical pauses, there was a significant difference in the number of non-grammatical pauses.
The children with autism had a lower non-grammatical pause frequency than either of the two control groups. Moreover, the children with autism produced shorter and less complex narratives, and the frequency of non-grammatical pauses was significantly correlated with narrative complexity as measured by the number of different words and total number of words produced.
Goodwin In our transcription we measured the duration of pauses in Transcriber in tenths of seconds, and coded them accordingly.
False starts were taken to include cases where a recast occurred some way into the clause or turn, not just at the beginning. However, as in the original study, pauses associated with false starts were not counted: by definition false starts involve a structural change, hence it is impossible to ascertain the grammaticality of the intervening pause.
Following Thurber and Tager-Flusberg, we also calculated the pause rate per words to allow comparison of the pause frequency between the two retellings. The following exemplify the pauses coded.
In example 2 , the encircled pauses are grammatical. The third pause occurs after a false start bold text and therefore was not included in the analysis. In example 3 , the first two pauses are grammatical while the final pause as encircled was a non-grammatical pause. Here the pause is non-grammatical because it interrupts a Prepositional Phrase. Consistent with previous studies, the pause indicates high cognitive loading as it is clear that Lincoln is momentarily unsure whether it is the house of straw or the house of sticks the wolf approaches at this point in the story.
Pauses accompanying repetitions occur between an incomplete utterance and the repeated lexical or phrasal element see example 4b. The issues arise in deciding precisely when a pause occurs within a phrase, and is therefore to be coded as a non-grammatical pause.
The fresh fruit from the farm that had fired us noun phrase prep. Phrase subordinate phrase was shipped to Maine and to the South. Phrase coordinator prep. Phrase 6 b. They also allow for grammatical pauses between a head noun and modifying Prepositional Phrase or Relative Clause see example 4a.
They thus treat as complete phrase units those which more conventionally might be regarded as syntactically incomplete, although the boundaries they recognize occur at potential phrase boundaries from a processing point of view. Nonetheless, we have followed what we take to be their approach in our study.
Furthermore, their participants received no verbal stimulus, but were invited to examine the pictures while an experimenter turned the pages; Lincoln was familiar with various verbalizations of the story and performed his own narratives without interruption.
That is, we might predict that Lincoln would be quite fluent in his production of at least some sequences within the story, given his previous exposure to it and the formulaic nature of the story itself. Nevertheless, it seems reasonable to investigate the distribution of the two different kinds of pauses, given the association of non-grammatical pauses with cognitive complexity, and our impression that the second retelling is simultaneously more elaborate and more dysfluent.
Table 1 shows the overall length of the two versions in number of words and in minutes. The second version has more verbal content, yet is spoken at a much faster pace. Areas of disagreement were resolved by discussion. The small frequencies of non- grammatical pauses are even more surprising in light of the fact that there are higher frequencies of grammatical pauses. However, as discussed above, the nature of the storytelling task is somewhat different between our study and the Thurber and Tager-Flusberg study.
The second story contains fewer false starts and fewer grammatical pauses which seems to correspond to the fact that, as indicated in Table 1, it was produced at a faster pace than the first story.
There are slightly more non-grammatical pauses in the second version which could be said to support the idea that this version was a more cognitively demanding task. We wish to challenge this conclusion, however. A global consideration of dysfluency in these narratives supports these impressions, suggesting that further investigation of dysfluency beyond pause frequencies is required to properly capture cognitive load and investment.
Some examples of other kinds of dysfluency which it is fruitful to consider will be examined in the remainder of this section. Instead we find many false starts and partial repetitions. He says p. For the most part, a single repair effort deals with a trouble-source.
Although not common, two successive repairs […] yielding three tries at that bit of talk — are not rare. Cases with more than two repairs […] are the harder to find the more repair segments are involved. In this example, there are at least two interlocked repair sequences with at least 4 tries at each, and 7 or 8 attempted repairs altogether depending on how you count, as shown in Table 3. Repair Table 3 An example of perseverative repair sequences Perseveration as a feature of executive control dysfunction is well known in psychological research, particularly in reference to performance tasks.
Shallice proposes an information-processing model for perseveration in which executive control dysfunction leads to a failed modulation of a lower level response selection system under a requirement for novel response generation. Perseveration has been found to be a feature of the performance of children with high functioning autism in studies of executive function e. Liss et al Stereotyped and repetitive use of language has long been recognized as a clinical feature of autism.
These characteristics have however been less discussed in the discourse analytic literature. At issue here is a mentalisation task over number which appears to cause some difficulty.