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Testing of Hypothesis 4. Developing theory 1. Observation It is simply the ability to notice something, keeping records and finding out answer for question framed by the observer. A scientific investigator must have a clear idea about what is to be observed and what is to be ignored. A scientist needs to direct the observations that raise question, like what, why, how. Measuring everything is neither wise nor possible. It is also very important to find out the proper method of measurement and keeping record of data.
All data should be preserved because any one of them might be useful in answering any present or future question. Formulation of Hypothesis The next requirement is to develop a number of potential explanations or hypothesis based on the observation. Suppose, suddenly you realize that a room is dark. As an explanation for this perception, you may formulate several hypothesis , such as the switches are turned off or the bulbs are burnt out or, perhaps, you are going blind.
Actually, a hypothesis is a logical explanation that accounts for the observation. This step involves guessing or predicting the plausible answers to a question. A good hypothesis should be as simple as possible. A hypothetical proposition might stand true or false. Hence, the data that emerge from a set of observations must be analysed which may help to make some kind of coherent generalization.
Testing of Hypothesis You need to test the hypothesis. For this, you must devise ways of testing. Generally, the scientists carry out an experiment for testing one or more hypothesis.
Based on the result of experiment they eliminate or confirm one or more of the hypothesis. This process helps to reject the most unlikely hypothesis and select the most likely one. Considering the hypothesis made earlier for explaining the causes of darkness in the room, first, as an experiment, you may try to switch on the light. If the room is still dark the first hypothesis is untrue and hence it is to be rejected. The shortcoming of this experiment is that it does not prove the other two hypothesis are true or false.
A standard type of experiment is called control experiment. Usually a scientist performs two sets of parallel experiments that are identical in all respects except in one variable. For example, to test the specific type of nutrient that affects the growth of plant, you may take five pots, each containing the same type of plant. Then add different nutrients to four of them and no nutrient to the fifth pot.
This pot will serve as a control for your experiment. In the next step, expose all the five plants to sunlight and water them uniformly.
Observe the differences in growth of all the plants, record your data and formulate the appropriate hypothesis. Developing theory If the repeated experiments to test a hypothesis of the prediction give the same result again and again the hypothesis gains validity.
A hypothesis that survives repeated tests over a long period of time and that has central importance to an area of science, may be considered a theory. Robert Hooke observed the presence of cellulae in Latin, small rooms and hence cells as early as , whereas the actual living cells were observed a few years later by Anton van Leeuwenhoek.
Actually, Hookes concept of cell received the proper recognition in , when a botanist, Matthias Schleiden, carefully studied plant tissues and developed the first statement on Cell Theory. Following this Theodor Schwann reported animal tissues in An important extension of Cell Theory all living cells arise from preexisting cells.
It came 20 years later in when Louis Pasteur successfully refuted the concept of spontaneous origin of life. Today, the likelihood of the cell theory being rejected is almost zero. Any scientific finding should be published. Biology: The Science of Life The living organisms interact with one another as well as with their physical and chemical environment. Biology Bios : life; logos: to discover is the scince that studies living organisms. Biology and its relation to other science All the disciplines of science are interrelated.
The approach of studying biology has presently become multi-disciplinary and more broad based then before. Today a new name-life science is often used in place of Biology, to cover its wide scope. The study of life science involves the knowledge of other basic sciences, such as physics and chemistry. Biology A science of exceptions Biology, however, is a science of exceptions. This is because it deals with living organisms which show enormous variation and are capable of changes.
Due to evolution living organism show a number of exceptions. Some important exceptions in biology are as follows Mature RBC of mammals are enucleated except camel and llama Nucleated RBC is present Normally the root of plants are positively geotropic but in mangrove plants Rhizophora negatively geotropic pneumatophores are present. Ostrich, Emu, Cassowary and Kiwi are birds which cannot fly. Duckbilled platypus and spiny ant eaters lay eggs like birds but they are mammals cledoic egg Crocodiles and alligators are reptiles having four chambered heart like mammals instead of incomplete four chambered heart of reptiles.
Generally mammals have seven cervical vertebrae while sea cow has six and sloth has nine cervical vertebrae. Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs. Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future. The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body.
Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases.
We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders. Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity. It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems.
Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body. A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals. With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops.
Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society. The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists. Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago.
Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e. Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks. Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e.
In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine.
Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy. He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body. Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery. Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty.
He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case. Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts. He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity.
According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed. Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child. The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity.
Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones.
Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies. His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. This loss energy increase entropy in a system.
Free energy from sun minimizes entropy. All living things need a continuous input of energy so as to maintain order. This is taken from sun either directly like green plants or indirectly from food. Energy transfer or energy transformation All matter living or non living contains energy. Energy is the capacity to do work.
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. This is the first law of thermodynamics. Whenever work is done energy is either transformed or transferred. Such change in energy occur continuously in a living cell. When continuous loss of energy takes place then entropy increases i.
Therefore in case of high entropy or in conditions of high energy loss, the cell is provided with an extra source of free energy. And the loss of energy is maintained. The free energy decreases the entropy i. There are many sources of free energy — for e. Organisms are Open systems If energy can never be destroyed First law of Thermodynamics then what prevents the recycling of energy? Answer to this question can be found in the Second law of Thermodynamics. The rest of the universe remains outside the system and is considered as surroundings.
In an open system, such as living cells, matter and energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings. For instance, a warm liquid is placed in a thermos flask or a bottle and the lids are tightened. The thermos flask more or less represents a closed system.
There is no question of exchange of matter between the internal environment of the thermos flask and its surroundings. So far as energy is concerned, the liquid remains warm for considerable period of time, dependignupon the efficiency of the thermos flask.
During this period, the heat energy of the liquid is not released outside and it moves inside. This keeps the liquid warm. Hence thermos flask represents an example of closed system. The system which has a continuous inflow of energy direct of indirect is called an open system. A living organium must have constant access to free energy or also its organisation will collapse over time, leading to death. When the rate of input of matter and energy equals to the rate of output of matter and energy it is called steady system.
For e. Without these, the organism can not maintain itself. There must also be an output of CO2, nitrogenous waste and heat which are products of chemical reactions, and which would be harmful to the organism if they are allowed to accumulate. For this, many organisms have regulatory mechanisms, which co-ordinate their functions, such as providing the cells with nutrients, transporting substances through the body. Others simply adjust to the environment by adopting the temperature, salinity and other physical aspects of their surroundings.
Example of Homeostasis: Within a few seconds you are able to adjust your sight to the dim light and move about. Bu t when we run, the rate of heart beat increases. This is because of the need for increased and faster blood supply to the tissues which have done extra work. But after sometime the normal rate of heart beat is restored.
It leads to increased sweating. As the sweat evaporates the body cools and the body temperature lowers down. Due to this glucose level in blood falls. This is done by ADH Secreted by pituitary gland.
This hormone increases the permeability of the wall of DCT and collecting duct. While in case of excess water ADH is not secreted and dilute urine is passed out. The vast majority of vertebrates fishes, amphibians, reptiles and plants lose most of their thermal energy to their environment. Such animals are called ectothermic. These organisms often depend on their environment for temperature regulation. Their skin may appear as either cold or warm, depending on the environment from which they have been taken for examination.
If any one of them is picked up from a hibernaculum or caught beside a cold body of water, it is likely that the skin will be cold.
This is the reason for calling them as poikilothermous. Alternatively, if an animal is examined during warm afternoon while it was basking in the sun, its skin will appear warm.
Actually, these animals save energy for utilizing it in other functions like reproduction. They have developed insulating devices, such as fat, hair, feathers, etc. They are endothermic. Their body temperature remains relatively constant, which is usually higher then that of the environment.
For this reason they are called homeothermous. To maintain the body temperature, which is 37 0 C This can be compared with the functioning of the thermostat of a room air-conditioner machine. Usually , the temperature of the thermostat is set at 21 0 C F. If the temperature of the room rises sufficiently above the set point, a sensor present within the thermostat detects the change and activates the effector of the machine.
The air-conditioner then reverses the deviation from the set point of the thermostat. Finally, the room temperature is controlled at the set point of the thermostat.
They are sensitive to the changes in temperature outside our bodies. They are termed as thermoreceptors. The former set is stimulated by fall in temperature and the rise in temperature. Conversely, warming inhibits cold receptors and cooling inhibits warm receptors.
The warm receptors are located immediately below the epidermis skin , while the cold receptors are located slightly deeper in the dermis. We have thermoreceptors also within the hypothalamus of our brain.
The hypothalamus now responds by activating the effector, that is, the sweat glands and the blood vessels of the skin. As a result, release of sweat and dilation of the blood vessels are initiated, which cause cooling and diffusion of body temperature.
Since the regulation of temperature is by cooling the body, in this case, it is in the negative side or reverse direction. This type of control system is called negative feedback loop. Biochemical Pathways are Tightly Regulated: Enzyme activity is sensitive to the presence of specific substances that bind to the enzymes.
A substance that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity is called an inhibitor, if it increases the activity of an enzyme it becomes an activator. In the metabolic pathways, the product of one reaction may serve as the substarate for the next reaction. When necessary, the final end product of one pathway may become the allosteric inhibitor for the action of the first enzyme of that pathway.
This method of regulating mechanism is called feedback mechanism. Thus the regulation of simple biochemical pathways often depends on the feedback mechanism. Types of Adaptations: Long term Adaptations: Short term adaptations: They are temporary changes that are produced in response to specific conditions and are meant for adjustment to unfavourable conditions. It helps in protecting the underlying tissue from ultra violet rays of the sun.
In favourable conditions dormancy is broken and the seeds germinate. It keeps its metabolic rate very low. It survives on stored fats. This reagent was developed by Schiff. In ancient India which of the following is regarded as God of Medicine?
Who was the first physician in ancient India who developed the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity? Which of the following is regarded as Father of surgery?
Which of the following is honoured as Father of anatomy? A plant classified as dicot but without visible cotyledon is: Science dealing with nose and olfactory organs is 1 Rhinology 2 Radiology 3 Dermatology 4 Kinesiology 7. The physical sufferings are often caused by bad deeds in the previous birth. It may be called: Herpetology is study of: Lightest wood is: Morgan B. Discovered that genes are made up of D.
Avery C. Introduced the term genetics iv Hugo de Vries D. Match the names of branches of science listed under Column I with the fields of study given under Column II. Choose the correct combination of alphabets: Mycology P. Study of bird B. Ornithology Q. Study of worms C. Herpetology R. Study of fishes D. Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A. The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P.
Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S.
Philosophic Zoologique E. Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.
What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains ………….
ACTH consists ……….. Hemocyanin of snail consists of ……….. An example of short term adaptation is — a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation. The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.
Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day? Hooker 5. Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis?
Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: This word was produced by A. Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms. New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism.
New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters. Some Informations: Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. For eg. Caryophyllum-Caryophyllum sexatilis folis gramineus unbellatis corymbis Binomial system: Linnaeus used this nomenclature system for the first time on large scale and proposed scientific name of all the plants and animals.
It was published on 1 May So this was the initiation of binomial system for plants. So any name proposed for plants before this date is not accepted today. So initiation of binomial system for animals is believed to be started on 1 Aug Principle of Priority: The nomenclature is done by principle of priority. If two names re proposed for any plant after the , the valid name is the earlier name proposed just after 1 May, Naja naja Indian cobra , Rattus rattus Rat 3 Length of generic name or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters.
Mangifera indica Exception - Riccia pathankotensis- More than 12 letters. According to ICBN this name is not valid but his name was proposed before , so it is valid.
ICBN 4 First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter. Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter. Isoetes Pntti 5 When written with free hand or typed, then generic name sand specific name should be separately underlined.
But during name shold be italized. Mangifera indica Lin. Tsuga candensis Lin. Salisbury Note: Linnaeus names this plane as Pinus Canadensis 9 Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages.
Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based. Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype.
Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype. Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype. Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype.
Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype. It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species — eg.
Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification. The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group.
For example: It has only one application: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i. Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance. In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered. In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group. In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i.
Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg. Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria.
In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc. Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i.
In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters. They have many dissimilarities. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification.
In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities. In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance.
While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc.
They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy.
In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology. Popular Blogs Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves. Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i.
But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. But lamarck rejected this hypothesis.