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Bei runs into a neighbor just as he reaches home. As typical neighborly male chatter, he comments on the huge bundle of greens. The neighbor assumes the greens are for the goat and jokingly says, "Why give food to a goat when you can butcher it [the goat] and enjoy it yourself! Mother Bei knows that the greens are for her family, not a goat, and she is highly insulted at being compared to an animal.
Under the very heavy hand of what is locally called self-censorship, these strips and editorial cartoons are able to take a far more relevant and hence humorous stance than comic books, which are almost entirely imported and thus have little if any social meaning within localized contexts.
Gender and social hierarchy issues are a safe bet, whereas politics is always dangerous ground 5. Yet, it is precisely this rather huge discrepancy between cartoons and comic books in terms of cost, storyline, and social relevance that needs further discussion. To say each is popular is an understatement. Each does, however, reflect a very different aspect of local society. Before we can dig a bit deeper and discuss some ways in which government regulations are avoided in independent comics, we will first look briefly at the historical development of mainstream comics.
History of Comics and Cartoons Cartoons in the mass media are the strips appearing in the funny pages of the news or the one shot visual condensation of political communication, the editorial cartoon. The editorial cartoon has a very long history while the cartoon strip did not exist in indigenous form prior to World War 2. All types of comics depend upon sophisticated printing technology and an economy in which people are able and willing to download daily, weekly, or monthly publications.
During the Dutch Occupation, editorial cartoons were widely used in the Dutch-controlled Jakarta print media, but these reflected Dutch not indigenous interests, and would have only been available to a few Indonesians 6. During the Japanese occupation in , the war for independence in , and the early years of freedom, posters were used for propaganda, which had an influence on the later development of the genre Anderson ; Zaimar Once the cartoon strip became established, these imported and translated strips eventually spurred on the indigenous cartoon.
Bind a string of strips together and you have the comic book, referred to locally as cergam, an acronym for cerita bergambar or story with pictures. The comic book made its debut in Indonesia in the s but all I can find on them is that they were American look-alikes Jakarta Post, 1 August In the s and up till the s, Indonesian cartoons finally found their place.
These were almost entirely adventure, silat kung fu stories of which the artist Oto Suastika was one of the early heroes. His artwork and stories were considered among the best in Indonesia after they appeared as a cartoon strip in the Starweekly in Praised for the quality of the drawing and general attractiveness, Oto adapted his stories from Chinese legends, with Chinese settings and Chinese details.
Because of economic difficulty in the post revolution era, the indigenous comic did not develop until the s. American strips had already begun flooding the local markets.
What followed was a proliferation of locally produced copies of foreign comics, the adaptation of Chinese legends, silat adventure stories, and a surge in their sales during the s to the s. Everybody was reading them! During this time, a brilliant scheme for evading the problem of economic difficulty appeared through the comic rental kiosk which blossomed throughout Java Wirosardjono Many Indonesians have described for me their memories of that time through images of people sitting under trees beside the huge piles of comics they had just borrowed from the rental kiosk!
As popular culture, then, the comic book is highly valued by locals who seem more than prepared to become entirely involved in these often epic narratives. During the s, the theory of comics as a reincarnation of past oral traditions met its modern economic reality where Chinese silat stories eventually led to a revival of local legends in comic book form. The most notable of these were the Mahabarata and Ramayana comics by Kosasih.
The Chinese influences were obviously still strong since this comic story was later turned into a Hong Kong adventure film Suara Merdeka 9 November This taste for epic legend comics prevails today. Ride any bus in Java now and you are sure to be offered miniature comic books on Mohammad, the Buddha, or Jesus. Since much of the comic material was extracted from adaptations of myths and legends, their huge significance for local readers makes one wonder what exactly it means to transform profound texts with their deep ethical and religious messages into comic book form.
Does the comic format turn the Pandawa brothers from the epic Mahabarata into a lesser type of super hero than they are because of the Indonesian misconception that the sole purpose of the comic is to entertain children?
Western intellectuals bemoan these comics as superficial and simplistic, "crude comic [.. Meanwhile, in a country as sensitive and as prone to religious violence as Indonesia, the proliferation of the Prophet Mohammed and other religious super-heroes into comic book form would never be locally evaluated as crude, caricatured stereotypes that fail to be highly significant educational models. Or are real values only conveyed through original books and performance genres such as wayang and lost through transference to the comic book?
Both Presidents Soekarno and Soeharto have taken a position on these questions when the first president Soekarno accused comic artists of subversion and denounced their work as garbage and a Western induced poison in the s.
Schools and kiosks were raided and the comics confiscated and burned. Later, in the Soeharto era, comics were again attacked for fostering laziness and having no educational value Jakarta Post, 1 August The "Golden Age" of comics with its new mass produced and consumed versions of old traditions is herein put to rest. Strangely, this rejection of the industry by the presidents rarely appears in writings on comics. What constantly does appear in the media now is a lament for the death of the national comic along with an admission that anything local quite simply is not as good as the foreign variety 7.
Yet, one still wonders why this hugely popular medium was destroyed. As comic artists themselves admit, Indonesian comics suffer from "writing problems" and Ganes TH adds that "readers need something new. This leads us back to questions of censorship and the limitations on new topics that will be discussed later.
Meanwhile, with such strong forces denouncing the local comic industry, the desire for comics has been met by a flood of foreign comics. Beginning with the s, translations of Donald Duck, Spiderman, Flash Gordon, and other American and European favorites have begun to fill the book shop shelves, while the Indonesian natives wallow in the dust of neglect, if, that is, they can even be found in the storage bins.
Translations of American cowboy and especially Indian stories and other Western legends take over where local and Chinese legends once ruled. Comics such as Musuh dalam Selimut Enemy in a Blanket reveal where the local industry has gone. While the comic was sold as a Western import in translation, often it concealed an indigenous illegal copy inside. In my issue of Musuh, behind the cowboy story I was surprised to find Tigra a Marvel title , a local adaptation of the Western super hero genre.
Tigra contains Indonesian bad guys, Caucasian good guys, and a super hero who is female, young, beautiful, wild, mute, a great kung fu fighter, very responsive to Caucasian handsome men, and wears very skimpy clothing. The extreme popularity of these local legend and kung fu comics in the s is obvious because of the extent to which they are easily located in any of the Javanese homes I have ever visited.
Yet, despite the obviously huge numbers sold in the recent past, these comic book legends remain largely unavailable in the book shops today 8.
Such a fact is hard to explain since the come-back of the s comic hero, Panji Tengkorak, as a film star in the mid s. In the latter half of the s, many of the old favorite artists like Jan Mintaraga made a valiant effort by digging up Javanese legends such as Jaka Tingkir, Ramayana, and Imperium Majapahit. The mass popularity of these comics is evident from their full color serialization in strip form in every one of the Javanese language weekly magazines and newspapers. In some of the Indonesian language newspapers also began reprinting these old legend serials.
But they never appeared in comic book form and their popularity pales in comparison to the foreign imports. Indonesian markets seem to be demanding something new, and these demands are not being met by local artists. By the end of the s, translations of Japanese comics such as Dragon Ball, Candy, and Kung Fu Boy entered the local scene with their eastern styles of story-telling. They are also praised for a quality of drawing that was deemed vastly superior to the local efforts.
Indonesian-made comics are now reduced to pretty much only the cartoon editorial variety and those strips that appear in newspapers. In the s and well into the s, about two thirds of these newspaper weekly cartoons were translations of foreign strips.
It is not just the success in sales of foreign comics that has squeezed the local varieties off the shelves. Since production expenses are much greater than downloading the rights to established foreign comics, local comics actually cost more than the imports do. All considered, producers have little incentive to support local artists. Furthermore, Indonesian comic artists seem to have had too narrow a repertoire: either the familiar traditional story or copies of foreign comics.
Local artists have told me that the Indonesian comic neglects indigenous perspectives on humor or traditions of story-telling because they are boring 9. Yet, quite realistically, Indonesian artists cannot offer comics about real, modern, social issues and contemporary concerns since many of these would be deemed subversive. No comic books have ever appeared on everyday common topics such as youth gangs, teen love, coming of age problems, and criminal elements within local contexts.
In the s, there is not one Indonesian comic book that looks at local reality the way the Mr. Bei strip does, for example. What is obvious within the current Indonesian comic world is that any indigenous efforts are deemed inferior in comparison to the slick, trendy overseas super hero comic.
The one recent challenger to the overseas onslaught is from the super-hero Caroq produced by Qomik Nusantara, the effort of a group of 14 art students from the Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java. The hero named Sarmun is an ethnic Baduy West Java who wears Madurese an island located just off the north east coast of Java style of clothing and fights with Madurese blades.
In fact, the characters are direct copies of the ultra muscular American comic heroes such as Batman, Captain Marvel, and others easily recognizable by comic buffs Despite their new attitudes, dependence on teamwork instead of the lone comic artist, and their slick, futuristic stories and artwork, the kinds of criticism Caroq is receiving can help us understand how difficult it is for local efforts.
Within the Indonesian internet comic network, Caroq is condemned for being just like the import comics.
Meanwhile, other local comics such as Patriot or Captain Bandung are harshly criticized for not being as slick and attractive as the imports. With such finicky downloaders, the Indonesian comic is in a no-win situation. Add on the fact that they are more expensive than the imports and it is easy to see why Indonesian fans download the imports. Thus, with little support from local downloaders, little opportunity for publication, an apparent fear of tackling modern issues, and a local tradition murdered by foreign marauders, Indonesian comic books seem destined to fade from existence.
Meanwhile, there still remains a small group of local heroes that retains its place in local hearts. Wayang Influences In the early s characters from the shadow-puppet theater wayang start to appear in cartoon strips in various forms and roles. While so many lament the subversion of wayang into crude, simplistic comic form, the wayang clowns more than any other aspect of this sacred art have had the strongest influence on modern Javanese art forms, including comics.
It is believed that the Javanese added clowns to the epic Hindu myths before A. The wayang clowns, named Semar and Togog, were originally gods but because of their bad behavior were banished from heaven to live among mortals on earth. Semar and his sons, Petruk, Gareng, and Bagong, have their roles in these tales as servants to the Pandawa brothers, the princes of the Kingdom of Amarta.
While we have already mentioned the legend comics and heard how foreign researchers and Indonesian presidents found these transformations from sacred text into profane comic lacking, it may well be worth explaining further what these wayang legends actually mean in Javanese contexts.
The Javanese arts, including wayang, dance, music, as well as the Javanese language and styles of interaction, are elegant, graceful and highly controlled Peacock The wayang has been maintained in Java for over a thousand years as a venerable dramatic tradition, and regarded as the most important vehicle for teaching and preserving the complex treasure of local mystical beliefs Peacock through highly ritualistic performances from the great Hindu epics, the Mahabarata and Ramayana.
The wayang is also a means through which to teach proper ways of speaking and behaving through the Javanese speech levels, the most elaborate of any known language. The Javanese language too, as scholars describe, is a form of high art whose inherent decorum and graciousness create a world of intense beauty. Scholarly descriptions focus on elegance and decorum rather than content and social inequality and state that refined language is a way of avoiding all conflict where speakers compete to bestow a calm graciousness upon their interlocutors rather than express personality and feelings.
From these very brief descriptions of Javanese art, language, and behavior, we should begin to piece together a picture of a people who value above all else an external display of self as calm and graceful.
How this self-control translates into the day to day lives of real people, their successes, their failures, and their comics is a topic begging for deeper investigation. These social rules of harmonious order and calm acquiescence that border on the sublime, especially within a political order that depends on self- censorship and in many respects terrorism as a means for maintaining social inequality as the status quo eg. Berman , a; Heryanto , assure us of the existence of numerous issues that grind away in silence beneath serene surfaces.
Thus, for centuries the clowns from these magnificent ancient tales have been a thoroughly Javanese creation and the much loved voice of the common people. Because clowns can speak their hearts and minds in the presence of their masters. One of the first incarnates of the wayang clown in cartoon strips appeared in the form of Djon Domino, a long-nosed, canvas-capped, T-shirted hero in the Jakarta tabloid, Pos Kota. Djon is utterly unlike most Western comic characters, since he has no clear-cut social role or status, no friends, no enemies, and no identifiable associates.
What is consistent is his appearance and iconographic similarity to Petruk, the long-nosed clown of the wayang shadow puppet theater Anderson figure 1. Why Petruk? As Anderson points out, the wayang clowns perform a dual function. The wayang world is a world of masters and servants in which clowns as dependents never challenge that social order. Clowns cannot be masters and this accepted fact between performance and audience makes the clowns so appealing to other subordinates in hierarchical Javanese society.
As Anderson describes, this is an inconceivable world in Javanese terms because moral status is indistinct, everyone is a clown, and subordinate and master are linked in complicity. While I cannot locate a history for the Petruk series of comic books from the Gultom Agency in Jakarta, these more blatantly wayang clown figures are caught in scenes of violence, social frustration, and class alienation as they try to enjoy very simple pleasures such as fishing in Gara-Gara Sepatu All because of shoes Since he does not own any shoes, this seems like a good thing.
In these storylines, humor is found where Petruk seizes enjoyment out of situations marked by unfairness and cruelty. Violence is inevitable since Petruk the barefoot peasant now sports a pair of shoes which he is carrying over his shoulder. Help arrives but only in the form of a more refined character who in a few polite words is able to stop the violence and set the world right.
Thus, the humor of the story is based on symbolically accepting the social order. Peasants must be shoeless, villagers must violently protect their meager possessions, and only the refined can return the world to its proper place. Raise the status of the clown through shoes or attention and he finds crude pleasures which inevitably offend his betters.
The social order in Javanese society is fixed within the cosmic order. Where we each fit within this order is predetermined and hence cannot be altered.
The acceptance of fate through acquiescence and refinement leads to respect and praise from others. To strive for more than one deserves is greedy and results in chaos, which becomes a recipe for humor. Thus, the beatings Petruk receives are funny, as is his ludicrous behavior. As the fool, he inappropriately responds with glee to the attention he gets as a thief. Crude actions are combined with the odd so clowns wear odd make-up, odd clothes and have odd movements Siegel These stereotypes result in laughter when they come into conflict with the breakdown of social and deferential expectations.
Thus, surreal humor is located where the boss loses control, the clown servant ridicules his betters, and the clown attempts to rise above his station. The Comic as Social-political Commentary In terms of their value as commentary then, comic books and cartoons reveal wide differences in what the genre as symbolic commentary is able to say.
Throughout the regime of President Suharto, censorship has been the rule for all publications.
Thus, comic books or strips and editorial cartoons in the press are constrained. The comic book even more so because it depends only upon itself for sales and survival. Thus, indigenous efforts are deemed too risky economically or politically. Yet by attempting to identify what makes a cartoon funny, we gain access to an intimate perspective on local meaning.
But as we have also seen, many of the modern comics also reveal why such a powerful social order still exists. The independent comic is extremely limited in its distribution because by name and content it is easily branded illegal.
Even the independent comics, which specifically do deal with modern issues, fall into this shady category because they are unregistered, hence illegal publications. Regardless of the potential popularity of their storylines, anyone caught in possession, distribution, or creation of these comics is at risk. Since all the information I have found in researching comic books in Indonesia comes from the mainstream press or a national seminar, we can expect it to reflect these dominant biases and never mention the independents.
While everyone complains about the lack of anything new or relevant in Indonesian comics, the blame falls on the comic artists or publishers, never the political conditions of self-censorship.
Thus, in line with government limitations on free speech, the comic books readily available in Indonesian book shops have no political commentary and reflect nothing of relevance to Indonesian contexts - which in itself is a reflection on local culture.
Shop windows are full of Japanese super hero figures and the vast comic displays have been moved from the rear up to the front of the stores Suara Merdeka Two active Indonesian internet networks devote themselves entirely to discussion of comics. The majority of these discussions are limited to praising the imported comics and denouncing the indigenous as just not interesting, sharp or well designed. While officially speaking, the national comic is dead, underground comics do exist.
But, the kinds of intimate self, historical, social, political, or cultural criticism found in many free-world independent and mainstream comics are rare in Indonesia. Often lacking reflection and self-questioning at either a personal or political level, the epic traditional comic, as well as the underground efforts, both add to, as well as reflect, the current atmosphere of guarded reserve and increasing isolation.
The message in these comics is often acquiescence nrimo and no longer acquiescence based on awareness and knowledge eling lan nrimo. What I have termed problems of identity, then, refers to a widespread avoidance of expressing a self within -- and even minimally in contact with -- the current socio- political environment. Instead, contextual realities are replaced by translations of not just western stories but also western perspectives and ideal solutions within indigenous contexts.
The results are often quite surreal but without the sense of playful intention expected from chance encounters. Yet, in all fairness, the harshness of my criticism reflects my own frustration more than local realities. Take into consideration the economic pressures faced by young artists and the social pressures to conform with received standards within the art academies and galleries and we are better able to understand why they are increasingly forced to sell-out.
In the face of real-world pressures, then, very few have the funding, social flexibility, or courageous inclination to discover what free expression really means. This also can explain why such a seemingly large number of young artists in the art center of Yogyakarta end up taking mainstream jobs to support their families, while others resort to drugs, alcohol, social behaviors intended to shock, and all too frequently, insanity.
Regardless of their limited distribution, the independents are all we have as a representative of the uncensored indigenous comic book. They are most definitely worthy of discussion. Independent Comic Books Independent comic books fall into two main categories, the art school and the NGO independent. We will take them in that order. The art school indies would be the most limited in terms of accessibility and distribution.
These comic books are often weird waton aneh , have little if any story, and tend toward the pornographic.
In terms of students at the Yogyakarta campus of the Art Institute of Indonesia, the work of the art school drop-out, Athonk, is what triggered the new interest in comic book production.
First inspection of the Bad Times Story reveals that all the main characters are devils. Nothing is necessarily what it would seem and all things must be taken for their own merit. But what have devils with halos, punks in conservative Java, and questions of good and evil have to do with Indonesian comics or politics?
As the artist writes, the Bad Times Story is "a story of an endless warfare. It is a war of independence from oppression, the battle to be an individual, to speak freely and question the rules of order.
The cruel and oppressive Authority is the angel. Athonk learned English through tourists and the other local youths who make their living serving them in the Sosro area.
This comic is, then, written in what is termed "Sosro" English. Regardless of how odd the language may seem, English is the language of free speech and expression, and as such, it is the language of choice even for those who may not be very proficient. In terms of visual symbols, the story is located in a tropical island paradise guarded by huge stone heads with the facial features of Salvador Dali.
The island is called "Daliland. Second, one of the major art influences in Indonesia is Surrealism. Thus, as in his own life, these icons are huge, ever- present military figures, scrutinizing everything that occurs on Daliland. Regardless of his own brushes with the Authority, the idealism of youth prevails in these attempts at understanding what freedom of expression may mean.
Fortunately Athonk remains very close with his friends and colleagues at the Art Institute and in Javanese hierarchical fashion he is considered an elder brother to these younger generations of student artists. Many have followed Athonk in taking up the calls for both activism and comics.
One of the earliest in the recent comic output from the Art Institute is Selingkuh dishonesty, deception, corruption. This comic-cum-manual is entirely devoted to weighing out the pluses and minuses of deception with the ultimate goal of luring someone into sexual engagement. Regardless of the consequences, sex as the reward for a good deception heavily outweighs the negatives, at least in terms of its presentational build-up within the comic.
Is there a message here? Is this a mockery in the form of crude values or an honest depiction of social norms? Ben Anderson has said that sexuality in Indonesian comics is a device for exposing vulnerability and complicity Anderson Unlike the fine examples set by the heroic brothers of the wayang traditions 12 , Selingkuh places sexuality as the ultimate goal. The comic contains absolutely no sense of Javanese culture or perspective as it is supposed to be, no sacred Javanese civilization, and nothing refined, graceful, elegant alus.
None of the discursive politeness expected in Javanese interactions is apparent either.
Instead, formulaic phrases reflect what is significant for youths on a type of self-inflicted exile from the lofty expectations of their elders and foreign scholars. English functions here, not as the language of free speech, but as the medium for insipid "pick-up" conversation.
English is also used in the listing of required selingkuh accessories: performance, transport, bar, doping, hotel. While all the actual steps leading up to sexual conquest are in English, the sex act as well as the hefty bill, the brief rush of guilt, and the final fight with the wife are all described through Indonesian words. Interestingly, the "Ending Perselingkuhan" the End of Deception is in English with the choice of ways to reach the "Suicide Alternatif" listed in Indonesian.
Interpretation of this linguistic code-switching can take many directions. Is this evidence of Western vulgarity destroying traditional values, or praise for modern economic and social advances as a means of simplifying a tradition of predatory male sexuality? English here shows how selingkuh practitioners benefit from increased accessibility to selingkuh partners via tourism, bars, hotels, and so on, while the Indonesian language brings the whole experience back down to earth via the expense in real terms within the home.
Is this comic an insult to Javanese culture and values or is it playful and imaginative? Finally, is it simply waton aneh weird for the sake of being weird? Here are the place! Ia selalu membela kebenaran dengan kekuatannya ini. Jika Anda tidak ingin menggunakan fitur ini, nonaktifkan pembelian di-app dalam pengaturan perangkat Anda.
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